GM kjøper Chevrolet

GM kjøper Chevrolet


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

2. mai 1918 kjøper General Motors Corporation (GM), som vil bli verdens største bilfirma, Chevrolet Motor Company.

GM hadde blitt grunnlagt et tiår tidligere av William C. "Billy" Durant, en tidligere vognprodusent fra Flint, Michigan, hvis Durant-Dort Carriage Company hadde tatt kontroll over det skrantende Buick Motor Company. 16. september 1908 innlemmet Durant Buick i en ny enhet, General Motors, som ved slutten av det tiåret hadde ønsket andre ledende bilprodusenter - inkludert Oldsmobile, Cadillac og Oakland - velkommen i sin fold. I 1910, da GM slet økonomisk, skyldte aksjonærene Durants aggressive ekspansjonisme og tvang ham ut av selskapet han grunnla. I november 1911 lanserte han Chevrolet Motor Company, oppkalt etter sin partner, den sveitsiske racerføreren Louis Chevrolet.

LES MER: Biler som laget Amerika

Fremdeles eieren av en betydelig andel GM -aksjer, begynte Durant å kjøpe flere aksjer i selskapet etter hvert som fortjenesten hans fra Chevrolet tillot det. I et siste trekk for å gjenvinne kontrollen, tilbød Durant GM -aksjonærer fem aksjer i Chevrolet -aksjer for hver andel GM -aksjer. Selv om GM-aksjekursene var ublu høye, gjorde markedsinteressen i Chevrolet handelen fem-mot-en uimotståelig for GM-aksjonærer. Med salget, avsluttet 2. mai 1918, gjenvunnet Durant kontrollen over GM. Bare to år senere ble han imidlertid presset ut for godt av Pierre S. DuPont, hvis families mektige kjemiske selskap hadde begynt å investere i den nye bilindustrien ved å kjøpe GM -aksjer i 1914. Pierre DuPont steg deretter til formannskapet i GMs styre og ble president i 1920. I en avtale som ble inngått samme år, betalte DuPont ned all Durants gjeld; i bytte forlot den kontroversielle grunnleggeren selskapet.

Durant nektet å bøye seg ut av bilindustrien, men grunnla Durant Motors i 1921 og produserte en serie biler det neste tiåret. Utbruddet av den store depresjonen på begynnelsen av 1930 -tallet satte en stopper for Durants karriere i biler, og han kastet sin gründerkraft bak en rekke bowlingbaner som ligger i nærheten av Buick -komplekset i Flint, Michigan. Da denne satsingen også mislyktes, bleknet Durant fra offentligheten. Han døde 18. mars 1947, 85 år gammel, bare uker før en annen bilpioner gikk bort: Henry Ford.


Den hemmelige historien om GMs kinesiske redning

Da amerikanske skattebetalere betalte en regning på 50 milliarder dollar for redning av General Motors i 2009, kunne få ha gjettet at den største av Detroit "Big Three" (GM, Chrysler, Ford) ville fortsette å importere kinesiske biler til USA. Likevel, bare syv år etter den offentlig finansierte og høyt politiserte redningen, sier GM at den vil gjøre akkurat det: tidlig i neste år begynner bilprodusenten å sende kinesiskproduserte Buick Envision-crossovers over Stillehavet for salg i sine amerikanske forhandlere, med en plugg -i hybridversjon av Cadillacs CT6 flaggskip sedan for å følge. Alle som trodde at GMs redning ville skape et bolverk mot en lenge fryktet flom av kinesiske biler, kan bli lurt på å finne den samme bilprodusenten som kjemper for kinesisk import. Faktisk er dette trekket bare det siste i et mønster som dateres tilbake til 2009, da GM mottok en hemmelighetsfull kinesisk "redning" som ser ut til å ha gjort Amerikas største bilprodusent til en trojansk hest for sin kinesiske partner.

I boken hans fra 2011 Amerikanske hjul, kinesiske veier forfatter Michael Dunne utforsker GMs dype suksess i det kinesiske markedet, og dateres tilbake til grunnleggelsen av dets "Shanghai GM" -partnerskap i 1995 med Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC). Han beskriver forholdet mellom de to selskapene som gjensidig fordelaktig gjennom begynnelsen av 2000-tallet, men da nedgangen i 2008 førte GM til konkurs, tok partnerskapet en bekymringsfull vending. Fordi den amerikanske auto taskforcen nektet å la GM bruke TARP -bistand på sine utenlandske operasjoner, ble GM tvunget til å henvende seg til SAIC for å få hjelp. Den resulterende avtalen vil for alltid endre den delikate maktbalansen i Shanghai GM joint venture og drive GM til å omstrukturere hele sin globale strategi rundt partnerskapet med SAIC.

GMs problemer i det asiatiske markedet i 2009 var sentrert rundt den koreanske virksomheten, den gang kjent som GM-Daewoo Automotive Technology Company (GMDAT). En gang GMs globale "hjemrom" for konstruksjon og eksport av småbiler til utvikling i markeder inkludert Kina, løp GMDAT inn i alvorlige kontantstrømsproblemer da det tapte 1,5 milliarder dollar i valuta alene i første kvartal 2009. Med GM på vei mot konkurs , dens amerikanske regjeringers redningsmenn som ikke er villige til å betale for utenlandske problemer, kredittmarkeder stort sett frosset av finanskrisen og den koreanske utviklingsbanken nekter å strekke lån utover de 2 milliardene dollar som GMDAT allerede skylder den, var GMs eneste alternativ å henvende seg til sin kinesiske partner for likviditet.

I midten av november 2009 hadde GM plutselig 491 millioner dollar å bruke på GMDATs snuoperasjon, men det var ikke umiddelbart klart hvor pengene kom fra. I desember kom de første detaljene fram: GM hadde solgt 1% av Shanghai GM til SAIC, noe som ga den kinesiske partneren en kontrollerende eierandel i satsingen. Det gjorde også den kjempende GM India -divisjonen til et joint venture, der SAIC mottok en eierandel på 50% i retur for en ekstra investering på 350 millioner dollar. På den tiden sa GM -ledere at avtalen også ville tillate SAIC å konsolidere inntjeningen fra joint venture, og at den i bytte hadde hjulpet GM "med å oppnå litt finansiering for andre aktiviteter fra den kinesiske banksektoren, noe som ville vært vanskelig å gjøre på våre egen." I SEC-innleveringen ved årsskiftet i 2010 avslørte GM til slutt at SAIC hadde hjulpet det med å sikre et kommersielt banklån på 400 millioner dollar, med sin eierandel i Shanghai-GM som sikkerhet.

Den prisen på 85 millioner dollar som SAIC betalte for den "gylne aksjen" i Shanghai-GM, var det første tegnet på at det var mer i handelen enn det som øyet så. I en forretningskultur som er besatt av guanxi, eller "favoriseringsøkonomien", var SAICs bistand i GMs desperasjonsøyeblikk en fordel av episke proporsjoner og en som ville kreve betydelig strategisk kompensasjon. Som Dunne påpeker, hadde Kinas strategi for joint venture-bilindustrien lett identifiserbare mål:

Trinn 1: Lag joint ventures med ledende globale bilprodusenter.

Trinn 2: Absorber den utenlandske partnerens teknologier knyttet til bildesign, konstruksjon og produksjon.

Trinn 3: Bygg biler under Kinas eget merkenavn.

Med overtaket på sin konkursramte partner, hadde SAIC innflytelsen til å ta alvorlige fremskritt på denne agendaen. GM ville til slutt kjøpe tilbake den gylne aksjen, men ikke før SAIC mottok en kontrollerende eierandel i joint venture-selskapets salgsselskap. Men selv denne betydelige fordelen brøt ikke regningen: I årene etter den gylne aksjeavtalen begynte GM å betale SAIC tilbake på de strategiske vilkårene som ble lagt ut av kinesisk industripolitikk.

Fra og med 2010 begynte GM en enestående bølge av teknologioverføringer og felles utvikling som ville knytte de to firmaene nærmere enn noensinne og sette den hundre år gamle bilprodusenten på et stadig mer nivå med sin oppstartede kinesiske partner. GM kunngjorde at de i fellesskap vil utvikle sin neste generasjon globale små gassmotorer og den første dobbeltkoblingen med SAIC på FoU-anlegget de to selskapene hadde etablert i Shanghai. På samme tid signerte den et forståelsesnotat om å gå med på "langsiktig strategisk samarbeid" om "nye energikjøretøyer"-den kinesiske regjeringens betegnelse på plug-in hybrid og rene elbiler. I en tid da økende utslippsforskrifter rundt om i verden gjorde drivstoffeffektiv og elektrifisert kjøretøyteknologi kritisk for fremtiden for hver bilprodusent, knyttet GM den fremtiden til sin kinesiske partner. Siden GM nå importerer sin toppmoderne Cadillac CT6 plug-in-hybrid fra sitt kinesiske joint-venture-anlegg, har fremtiden allerede begynt å komme.

Til og med GMs nåværende kjerneteknologi begynte plutselig å dukke opp i hendene på sin kinesiske partner. Chevrolet New Sail 2010 ble beskrevet som den første personbilen som ble utviklet i fellesskap helt i Kina, men under huden lå Gamma II -plattformen som fremdeles understøtter GMs subkompakt -tilbud som Chevrolet Spark, Sonic og Trax. I 2012 hadde SAIC utviklet kjøretøyer som brukte GMs Delta II kompakte og Epsilon mellomstore plattformer, noe som ga den tilgang til alle tre av GMs globale kjernebilplattformer. Det året lanserte SAIC også sitt første kjøretøy med en dobbeltkobling, Roewe 550, og slo den hundre år gamle partneren. Innen bare tre år etter den gylne aksjeavtalen så det ut til at SAIC gikk teknologisk foran GM.

Men suksess i Kina krevde mer enn den nyeste teknologien, og GM flyttet også lavprisutviklingsmarkedet fra Korea til Shanghai. Et treveis joint venture mellom SAIC, GM og Wuling hadde raskt utvidet salget av sine spartanske mikrobiler, og i 2011 brøt det inn i mainstream med sitt første eget merke, utviklet på GM “J” -plattformen: Baojun 630. I 2012 begynte Baojun -merket å produsere sin egen versjon av den gamle Chevrolet Spark og har siden lagt til en subkompakt SUV og MPV begge basert på sin egen "felles utviklede" plattform. Nesten en av fire GM-biler som selges i Kina er nå en Baojun, men som bare 44% partner i Shanghai-GM-Wuling GMs andel av overskuddet er enda tynnere enn hos Shanghai GM.

Da SAIC nyter overtaket i Kina og sammen driver GMs virksomhet i India, skjedde det et nytt skifte i forholdet: GM begynte å rebadge partneren sine kinesisk-merkede kjøretøyer for eksportmarkeder. Eksporten av Chevrolet-merkede Wuling-varebiler begynte allerede i 2008, og eksporten av komplette knock-down-sett til montering i GM-fabrikker rundt om i verden akselererte etter avtalen om gylne aksjer. I 2013 ble Baojun 630 - som var planlagt som en eksportmodell - rebadged for eksport til en rekke utviklende markeder som Chevrolet Optra. Samme år oversteg GMs globale eksport av kinesiske biler 100 000 enheter, og da han ble spurt om kinesiskproduserte biler en dag kunne bli solgt i USA, svarte GM Kinas president Bob Socia "det kan godt skje."

Justeringen av GM og SAICs globale strategier har kulminert i kunngjøringen av en felles utviklet ny arkitektur som vil ligge til grunn for alle GMs små biler som selges utenfor Europa og USA. Mellom denne plattformen og den felles utviklede Small Gas Engine-familien vil linjen mellom GM og SAIC ha blitt slettet på de fleste av verdens markeder. Dette betyr ikke bare at GM må dele alle fremtidige gevinster i vekstmarkedet med SAIC, det betyr også slutten på royaltybetalinger som GM en gang tjente for hver bil som ble bygget med motorer og arkitekturer. I alle markeder med et sterkt potensial for volumvekst i fremtiden, har GMs unike fordeler med hensyn til den nylig bemyndigede partneren blitt kastet ned til merkevarene den bruker for å fjerne ethvert stigma rundt kinesiske produkter.

Importen av Buick Envision vil være den første store amerikanske effekten av GMs kinesiske justering, men ved GMs utposter i Korea og Australia kjennes smertene langt mer direkte. I 2013 kunngjorde GM at den ville avslutte all produksjon i den australske divisjonen Holden, og erstatte det sterkt uavhengige utviklings- og produksjonssenteret med en serie med importerte modeller. Så sent som i 2003 sa GM-ledere Holdens siste unike kjøretøy Commodore-som ble importert til USA som Pontiac GTO 2004–6-kunne eksporteres til Kina innen 2017, at bilen faktisk blir produsert i Kina og eksportert til Australia, der alt som gjenstår av Holden er en salgs- og serviceoperasjon.

GMDAT ble omdøpt til GM Korea i 2011 "for å gjenspeile dens økte status i globale operasjoner av GM" ifølge GMs offisielle kunngjøring, men navneendringen så ut til å ha den motsatte effekten. Etter å ha levert kjerneteknologien bak mange av GMs mest suksessrike produkter i Kina-markedet, har GM Korea mistet sin status som GMs "hjemrom" i fremvoksende marked til Shanghai-GMs nye felles kjøretøyplattform for fremvoksende markeder. I 2013, da GM bestemte seg for å slutte å selge Chevrolet -merket i Europa, forsvant et marked som sto for mer enn 20% av GM Koreas produksjon nesten over natten. Etter å ha holdt GMDAT flytende i årevis med milliarder i Korea Development Bank -lån, finner koreanerne seg nå til å svelge bitre permitteringer og forberede seg på sannsynlige nedleggelser av anlegg.

Over hele Asia er det flere tegn på at SAIC stiger: GMs indonesiske virksomhet blir erstattet av et S-GM-Wuling-anlegg, GM kansellerte en planlagt ekspansjon i Thailand etter at SAIC kom inn på markedet med en annen partner, og GM flyttet de siste restene av sitt svakende "internasjonale operasjoner" til Singapore. SAIC reduserte sin eierandel i GM India til bare 7% i 2012, men bare fordi SAIC ifølge GMs Socia var klar til å konkurrere med GM. Siden begge selskapene snart vil tilby den samme familien med fremvoksende biler som de utvikler sammen i Shanghai, er SAICs tillit neppe overraskende. Med GM- og fellesutviklet teknologi som allerede ligger til grunn for bilserien med det klassiske britiske MG-merket (Morris Garages), presser SAIC seg også inn på markeder som Australia og Storbritannia der GM har vært på retrett i årevis.

Takket være sin enestående tilgang til GMs infrastruktur, teknologi, merker og samarbeid i kjølvannet av avtalen om gylne aksjer, har SAIC blitt den raskest voksende bilprodusenten i verden etter markedsverdi. GMs nyeste produkter og plattformer debuterer i Kina før andre markeder, og dens treårige investeringsplan på 12 milliarder dollar for Kina er mer enn dobbelt så mye som 5,4 milliarder dollar tildelt for det amerikanske markedet i samme periode.

Det faktum at Korea og Australia har tatt mesteparten av GMs Kina-sentriske restrukturering, viser at GM lenge har stolt på utenlandske operasjoner for å supplere produktene og fortjenesten som genereres på hjemmemarkedet. Men amerikanske skattebetalere bør være klar over at mange års offentlig bistand fra den australske regjeringen og den koreanske utviklingsbanken ikke forhindret GM i å flytte utviklings- og produksjonsjobber til Kina. Den trøstende myten om at statsstøtte kan stoppe GMs strategiske skifte til Kina har rett og slett ikke blitt bevist.

Hvis amerikanske forbrukere ikke tar tak i tilstedeværelsen av kinesiskproduserte Buicks i deres lokale GM-forhandlere, virker det sannsynlig at GM vil fortsette å favorisere sin nå dominerende partner med en økende andel av amerikanske markedsresultater. Med en ny United Auto Workers -kontrakt som øker lønningene i USA og en forventet rentestigning i Federal Reserve, som potensielt kan øke verdien av dollaren, vil kinesisk import bare bli mer kostnadskonkurransedyktig. Selv om GM kanskje aldri blir et fullt kinesisk selskap på papir, vil det fortsette å integrere seg med og bli formørket av sin tidligere kinesiske protege. Etter å ha stolt på guanxi av en kinesisk partner mens han var i desperasjon, kan GM tilbakebetale tjenesten for alltid. Og inntil det amerikanske markedet kan tilby de vekstmulighetene Kina gjør, vil vår investering i GM i 2009 kanskje aldri lønne seg like nært.


Chevrolets historie

Chevrolet (IPA: / ˌʃɛvroʊˈleɪ / - fransk opprinnelse) (også kjent som Chevy) er et bilmerke, produsert av General Motors (GM). Det er det bestselgende GM -merket, med "Chevrolet" eller "Chevy" til tider synonymt med GM.

Chevrolet tilbyr 18 biler og mange forskjellige forbedrede versjoner på hjemmemarkedet. Kjøretøyene spenner fra subkompakte biler til mellomstore kommersielle lastebiler. Selgerens nummer én -selger i USA er Silverado -pickupen. Chevrolet fortsetter å være ytelse, pris, MPG og verdileder for General Motors Nord -Amerika.

Nordamerikansk historie

Chevrolet ble grunnlagt av Louis Chevrolet (sveitsisk-fransk) og William C. Durant (amerikansk). Louis Chevrolet var en racerbilfører, og William Durant, grunnlegger av General Motors, hadde blitt tvunget ut av GM i 1910. Han ønsket å bruke Chevrolets design for å gjenoppbygge sitt eget rykte som en kraft i bilindustrien. Som sjef for Buick Motor Company, før han grunnla GM, hadde Durant leid Chevrolet for å kjøre Buicks i salgsfremmende løp.

Chevrolet brukte sin "bowtie" -logo første gang i 1913. Det sies å ha blitt designet av tapet Durant en gang så på et fransk hotell. En annen teori er at det er en stilisert versjon enten av formen til Sveits eller korset på flagget til Sveits, Louis Chevrolets fødested.

I 1915 var Durant i ferd med å sette opp Chevrolet produksjonsanlegg i Toronto, Canada. Senere samme år, under et lunsjmøte i New York med "oberst Sam" McLaughlin, hvis McLaughlin Motor Car Company produserte McLaughlin-Buick-biler, ble det avtalt at Chevrolets med McLaughlin-designede karosserier ble lagt til det kanadiske selskapets produktlinje. Tre år senere ble de to kanadiske operasjonene (Chevrolet var da en del av GM i USA) kjøpt av GM for å bli General Motors of Canada Ltd.

I 1916 var Chevrolet lønnsomt nok til at Durant kunne kjøpe et flertall av aksjene i GM. Etter at avtalen ble fullført i 1917, var Durant president i General Motors, og Chevrolet ble slått sammen til GM og ble en egen divisjon. I modellåret 1918 introduserte Chevrolet Model D, en V8-drevet modell i fire-passasjer roadster og fem-passasjer tourer-modeller. Disse bilene hadde 288in3 35hk (26kW) motorer med Zenith forgassere og tre-trinns girkasser.

Kjente Chevy-modeller inkluderer den store og luksuriøse Impala (1958) og den innovative luftkjølte Corvair-motoren bak. Chevrolet hadde stor innflytelse på det amerikanske bilmarkedet i løpet av 1950- og 1960 -årene. I 1957 laget Chevy den første drivstoffinnsprøytede motoren. I 1963 var en av ti biler som ble solgt i USA en Chevrolet.

Den grunnleggende Chevrolet V-8-konstruksjonen med liten blokk har vært i kontinuerlig produksjon siden debuten i 1955, lengre enn noen annen masseprodusert motor i verden, selv om dagens versjoner deler få om noen deler som kan byttes ut med originalen. Etterkommere av den grunnleggende småblokk OHV V-8 designplattformen i produksjon i dag har blitt mye modifisert med fremskritt som aluminiumsblokk og hoder, elektronisk motorstyring og sekvensiell drivstoffinnsprøytning, for bare å nevne noen. Den lille blokken Chevrolet V-8 brukes i dagens produksjonsmodell (2008) Impala sedan, en rekke lette og mellomstore Chevrolet lastebiler og den nåværende generasjonen Corvette sportsbil. Avhengig av kjøretøytype, er de bygget i forskyvninger fra 4,8 til 7,0 liter med effekt fra 180 til 638 hestekrefter (476 kW) som installert på fabrikken. Den vil også bli brukt som et ytelsesalternativ i den kommende (2009 modellåret) gjenopplivingen av Chevrolet Camaro. Motordesignet har også blitt brukt gjennom årene i GM -produkter bygget og solgt under Pontiac. Oldsmobile, Buick, Opel (Tyskland) og Holden (Australia) navneskilt. Nylig har en 6-liters, 400 hestekrefter (300kW) versjon av liten blokk V-8 designet opprinnelig for C-6 Corvette blitt installert i en fabrikkbygd høyytelsesversjon av Cadillac CTS sedan kjent som CTS-V .

Australia

Selv om det australske markedet i dag hovedsakelig består av Australias egne bilselskaper sammen med asiatiske og europeiske bilmerker, hadde Australia en gang en god del av amerikanske biler. I mange tiår frem til tidlig på 1960 -tallet ble Chevrolet -biler produsert og solgt i Australia i merkevaren Chevrolet i delstaten Sør -Australia. Vintage Chevrolet -modeller som Bel Air, Impala etc, finnes fremdeles i mange stater rundt Australia. Produksjonen har nå opphørt, og den dag i dag har Dodge, Jeep og Chrysler blitt etterfulgt når det gjelder amerikanske biler. Chevrolet Suburban 1998-2001 ble merket under GM Holden for salg i Australia. I dag er flere av Chevrolets design basert på deres australske kolleger (GM Holden). Chevrolet utvider tilgjengeligheten av store pick -ups og SUV -er i det australske markedet.

Latin -Amerika

Historisk sett ble mange latinamerikanske biler fra GM modifiserte derivater av eldre modeller fra GMs nordamerikanske og europeiske operasjoner. Den nåværende S10 og Blazer eksemplifiserer denne strategien. Imidlertid blir mer moderne biler nå markedsført ettersom markedsforholdene endres og konkurransen øker. I tillegg til de eldre modellene produsert i Mexico, Ecuador, Colombia og Mercosur land, hentet koreanske biler fra tidligere Daewoo fabrikker noen markeder også tyske Opel og USA laget Chevrolet på toppen av sine lokale line-ups.

I Brasil var Chevrolet Opala basert på den tyske Opel Rekord fra slutten av 1960 -årene, og fortsatte i produksjonen til begynnelsen av 1990 -tallet, da den ble erstattet av en versjon av Opel Omega. Andre mindre Chevrolets i Brasil, som Kadett og Monza, var basert på henholdsvis Opel Kadett og Ascona. Chevrolets produktserie i Brasil består nå av noen eksklusive design som Corsa "B" -baserte Celta som selges i Argentina under merkevaren Suzuki, Astra, og en helt ny, brasiliansk designet Vectra basert på den nåværende Opel Astra, mens den nåværende Corsa er bygget og Omega -navnet brukes nå på Holden Commodore. Utility og firehjulsdrevne kjøretøyer inkluderer S10, Blazer og Montana. Montana er en kompakt pickup, basert på Corsa, som også selges på andre latinamerikanske markeder. Fra 1960-tallet til midten av 1980-tallet var det også en stor stasjonsvogn, avledet fra [[ChevProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age = 0

la C/ K | C10]] lastebil (noe som ligner på Suburban), kalt Veraneio.

Chevrolet -produksjonen i Chile begynte i 1962, men først gjennom lokale partnere (i dette tilfellet Avayu med Nova II). GM monterer fremdeles Isuzu D-Max som LUV D-Max i Arica og Isuzu´ F og N-serien i Huechuraba, Santiago.

Chevrolet har drevet i Ecuador i 80 år. GM Ecuador selger amerikanske Chevrolets sammen med modeller fra GM Daewoo og Opel. Den selger også Suzuki Supercarry fra 1983 under Chevrolet -navnet, og Isuzu Rodeo ble solgt som Chevrolet Rodeo gjennom 1990 -tallet.

I Venezuela har Chevrolet vært i drift siden 1948, da produksjonen av lastebiler begynte i Caracas. I 1979 flyttet produksjonen til et anlegg i Valencia som ble kjøpt fra Chrysler. Chevrolet samlet mer enn 1500 000 biler de første 50 årene i Venezuela.

Argentina

I 1924 begynte General Motors å importere Chevrolet Double Phaeton -modeller og blir ønsket velkommen med stor etterspørsel.

I 1925, for å redusere kostnadene i det argentinske markedet, bestemmer General Motors å produsere i Argentina og begynner å produsere en sedan, roadster, et lastebilchassis og Chevrolet Double Phaeton nå kalt "Especial Argentino", en modell utelukkende designet for argentineren marked. Salget økte, og snart ble enhetene Oldsmobile, Oakland og Pontiac innlemmet i samlebåndet.

Da andre verdenskrig brøt ut var operasjonene kompliserte. I 1941 ble Chevrolet 250.000 laget, men mangel på produkter gjorde bilproduksjon umulig. Den siste Chevrolet går ut av fabrikken i august 1942. For å unngå total stopp stoppet selskapet blant annet elektriske og bærbare kjøleskap og biltilbehør. Etter krigen begynte GM å produsere Oldsmobile og Pontiac -linjene, og senere blir Chevrolet lagt til.

I 1959 ble produksjonsanleggene utvidet og satt opp for å produsere biler, pick -ups og lastebiler. Den 25. januar 1960 ble den første argentinske pick -up Chevrolet introdusert. Året etter godkjenner den nasjonale regjeringen investeringsplanen for 45 millioner dollar som inkluderte et anlegg på 12 000 m2. Den 12. mars 1962 ble den første Chevrolet 400 laget på grunnlag av den nordamerikanske Chevy II. Den opprinnelige planen vurderte en nasjonal integrasjon på 50% i løpet av det første produksjonsåret, dette beløpet må bli 90% i 1964 med en produksjon på 15.000 enheter. I 1969 ble Chevy -linjen, avledet fra den amerikanske Chevy Nova, presentert.

På midten av syttitallet reduseres General Motors markedsandel kraftig fra 9% i 1976 til 2% i 1978. Tapene oversteg 30 millioner dollar og hovedselskapet i USA bestemmer seg for å stoppe den produktive virksomheten i Argentina.

Chevrolet-varemerket dukker opp igjen i 1985 for produksjon av pick-up i sine versjoner C-20 og D-20. I 1995 ble en plan for produksjon bestemt for eksport spesielt til Brasil og andre land i Mercosur materialisert med byggingen av et nytt anlegg nær Rosario, Santa Fe for produksjon av Opel -baserte Chevrolet Corsa og Suzuki -baserte Chevrolet Grand Vitara 4x4 .

Mexico

I Mexico selges noen av disse Chevrolet-modellene fra Opel sammen med amerikanske modeller. Et eksempel er angående Vectra. Mens den brasilianske Vectra er basert på Opels nåværende Astra Sedan, er den meksikanske Vectra faktisk den nåværende Opel Vectra som selges i Europa. Mexico har også noen egne biler, for eksempel Chevy C2, som er en omarbeidet siste generasjon Corsa, Sonora (som er en ny merket Tahoe) og Cheyenne (som ligner på Silverado, men er like forskjellig som Sonora er i forstaden). Chevrolet Optra, montert i Sør -Korea av GM Daewoo, selges også i Mexico.

Europa

Chevrolet Europe er et sveitsisk-basert firma (i Zürich) som selger de nye merkene til GM Daewoo.

Fram til 2005 solgte Chevrolet Europe noen få modeller, hovedsakelig amerikanske hjemmemarkedsmodeller (USDM) som var modifisert for å passe europeiske forskrifter. Blant dem var Chevrolet Alero (som var en gammeldags Oldsmobile Alero) og Chevrolet Trans Sport (som var en Chevrolet Venture med frontenden på Pontiac Trans Sport). Blant andre modeller som ble solgt av Chevrolet Europe var Camaro, Beretta, Corvette, Blazer og TrailBlazer. Den nåværende generasjonen av Chevrolet Impala V-8 sedaner i Nord-Amerika har også vært tilgjengelig i Europa de siste årene, markedsført som både store familie-sedans og mer økonomisk prissatte alternativer til Jaguars og BMW-er som ledende biler med høy ytelse.

Det var i 2005 at alle de vanlige modellene fra GM Daewoo ble omdøpt til Chevrolet i Europa (Eierskapet til SUV -modellene i det tidligere Daewoo -serien hadde på dette tidspunktet gått tilbake til eierskapet til Ssangyong). Daewoo -navnet ble imidlertid beholdt i Sør -Korea og Vietnam. I resten av verden har de fleste Daewoo -modeller brukt Chevrolet -merket siden 2003. Unntak inkluderer bruk av Suzuki -merket i USA og Canada, Pontiac -merket i Canada, Holden -merket i Australia og New Zealand, og Buick -merke i Kina for visse GM Daewoo -modeller.

Corvette markedsføres i Europa gjennom en egen distribusjonskanal som drives av Nederland-baserte Kroymans Corporation Group. Fordi Chevrolet-merket nå representerer verdidrevne biler i Europa, ble Corvette-navnet gjort til et eget merke for Europa og Japan.

Holden Commodore er merket som Chevrolet Lumina i Thailand og Midtøsten, samt Sør -Afrika. Den lengre akselavstanden Holden Statesman selges som Chevrolet Caprice i Midtøsten.

Midtøsten

I Midtøsten er Chevrolet-merkede biler, lastebiler, SUV-er og crossovers hentet fra GM Daewoo (i Sør-Korea), GM i Nord-Amerika og GM Holden (i Australia). Midtøsten-markedet har en egen divisjon kalt Chevrolet Special Vehicles (CSV), som (fra desember 2007) kilder til den høye ytelsen på 400 hk (300 kW) CR8 sedan fra Holden Special Vehicles.

Pakistan

I Pakistan introduserte Chevrolet sine biler i samarbeid med en lokal bilprodusent kalt Nexus Automotive. De nåværende modellene som er tilgjengelige er Chevrolet Optra og Chevrolet Joy. Fra desember 2005 ble Chevrolet Joy montert lokalt i Pakistan. I 2008 lanserte Chevrolet sitt eget nettsted og la til Chevrolet Aveo og Chevrolet Colorado.

India

Chevrolet er blant de nyeste merkene i India som ble lansert av GMs indiske virksomhet. Fram til 6. juni 2003 (Chevrolets offisielle fødselsdag) solgte GM India (som opprinnelig var et joint venture med Hindustan Motors) Opel Corsa, Opel Astra og Opel Vectra. Corsa og Astra ble bygget på et anlegg i Halol, Gujarat.

Siden den gang har Chevrolet for tiden solgt Chevrolet Optra, Chevrolet Aveo, Chevrolet Tavera, Chevrolet SRV, Chevrolet Spark og Chevrolet Aveo U-VA. Chevrolet Forester, en rebarget Subaru, ble importert direkte fra Fuji Heavy Industries i Japan til 2005. Optra og Tavera er bygget på Halol -fabrikken. Den siste Chevrolet som ble lansert i India er Chevrolet Captiva SUV, en rebadged Holden Capitva.

Chevrolet er også den eneste motorleverandøren for Formula Rolon -seterserien i India.

Thailand

Den amerikanskbygde Chevrolet Colorado pickupen er også produsert i Rayong, Thailand.

General Motors undersøker for tiden kostnadsreduserende alternativer som en del av omstruktureringsplanen. Et av disse alternativene innebærer å utvide anlegget i Rayong, Thailand for å legge til ekstra kapasitet til å eksportere Colorado til USA. Dette vil tillate at fabrikken i Shreveport, Louisiana stenges (der Colorado også produseres). Dette scenariet er bare troverdig hvis det blir undertegnet en frihandelsavtale mellom USA og Thailand, ettersom den amerikanske tariffen på importerte lastebiler fra ikke-frihandelsland for øyeblikket er 25%. United Auto Workers er den mest vokale motstanderen til en endring i tariffstrukturen.

Japan

På midten av 2000 -tallet importerte og markedsførte Suzuki TrailBlazer og Chevrolet Optra -vognen i Japan. General Motors Asia Pacific (Japan) distribuerer og markedsfører i dag Chevrolet TrailBlazer i et svært begrenset antall. Suzuki, en GM -partner, monterer og markedsfører også Chevrolet Cruze subcompact og Chevrolet MW kei -bilen. MW var opprinnelig en rebadged Suzuki Wagon R. Fra 2008 er det en rebadged Suzuki Solio. Mitsui distribuerer og markedsfører i dag versjonene Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Express, Chevrolet HHR og Starcraft av G-Van og Chevrolet Trailblazer. General Motors Japan importerer og distribuerer direkte Corvette, som markedsføres under eget merke. Dermed er det tre forskjellige distribusjonskanaler for Chevrolet-merkede biler, og et eget nettverk for Corvette-merkede biler.

Sør-Korea

Chevrolet-merkede biler selges ikke i Sør-Korea. Mange Chevrolet-biler fra det globale markedet er imidlertid hentet fra GM Daewoo i Sør-Korea.

Sør-Afrika

I Sør -Afrika var Chevrolet GMs viktigste merkenavn fram til 1982, med en rekke Vauxhall Motors og Holden -derivater som ble bygget under Chevy -navnet fra 1964. På 1970 -tallet ringte reklamen "braaivleis, rugby, sunny skies og Chevrolet" (tilpasset fra USA "Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pies og Chevrolet") kom for å symbolisere den ideelle livsstilen til hvite mannlige sørafrikanere. Holden in Australia used the jingle "Football, Meat Pies, Kangaroos and Holden cars". Originally, Chevrolets were CKD kits of US models assembled in their plant in Port Elizabeth. However, since South Africa was right-hand drive and the US was left-hand drive, along with encouragement by the South African government to use local content, Chevrolets such as the Biscayne were eventually made entirely in South Africa, along with GM's "own car for South Africa": the Ranger.

By the 1970s, larger South African Chevrolets were based on Holden models, the Kommando being based on the Kingswood and the Constantia on the Premier, while the smaller Firenza was based on the Vauxhall Viva. The Chevrolet Nomad sold in South Africa was entirely different from the Nomad sold in America whereas the American Nomad was originally conceived as a station wagon version of the Corvette and eventually became the station wagon version of the Bel Air, the South African Nomad was an SUV of truck proportions before SUVs were popular.

However, these were replaced by Opel models like the Rekord, Commodore, and Senator, and in 1982 the Chevrolet brand name was dropped in favour of Opel. Because of the political climate at the time, GM decided to divest from South Africa in 1986, and a local group eventually bought out GM's South African operations (including the Port Elizabeth plant) and renamed the company as the Delta Motor Corporation, which concentrated on Opels, Isuzus, and Suzukis, built under licence.

However, thanks to an improved political climate in the 1990s, GM decided to reenter South Africa, eventually buying out the whole of Delta. In 2001, the Chevrolet name made a comeback, used on the Lumina, a rebadged Holden Commodore, and later on, on the Daewoo range of cars. Current Chevrolets include the Spark (a rebadged Daewoo Matiz), Aveo, Optra, the Lumina (including the Ute model), and the Vivant, an MPV that is a rebadged version of the Daewoo Tacuma.

Russland

In Russia, various Chevrolet models are available. Current Chevrolets include the Spark, Aveo, Lanos, Lacetti, Rezzo, Epica, Captiva, TrailBlazer, and Tahoe. All of these models (with the exception of the TrailBlazer and Tahoe) are rebadged Daewoo models.

The Chevrolet brand is currently undergoing a product restructuring in North America along with all other GM brands in order to fit into the parent company's turnaround efforts. Since the 2007 hiatus of the Monte Carlo, there is an unknown status as of January 2009. In early 2009 Chevrolet will bring back the Chevrolet Camaro muscle car for the 2010 model year. At the 2009 Detroit Auto Show, the production version of the Chevrolet Beat was displayed under the nameplate of Spark Chevrolet announced that the Spark along with the Chevrolet Orlando would go into production in the US. Orlando is most likely to replace the HHR. In 2010 Chevrolet will introduce two more models: the plug-in electric Chevrolet Volt and the Chevrolet Cruze which will be the successor to the Cobalt.

In 2007, Chevrolet launched its first watch collection under the Louis Chevrolet watch brand. The watch collection pays tribute to Louis Chevrolet, co-founder of the brand, who was born in a family of a watchmaker and in his childhood helped his father at the workbench. The collection was called Frontenac, the name inherited from the race car company founded by Louis Chevrolet. The Chevrolet watch collection comprises automatic, manually-wound and quartz models, equipped with ETA and Ronda movements.

The Louis Chevrolet Frontenac watches, manufactured in Courgenay, the Swiss Jura region, feature the styling cues suggested by the Chevrolet cars. The collection was developed while applying the same materials as used in the car industry. Pearled appliques on the Chevrolet watches' dials remind the metal forms of the old dashboards. The number '8,' Chevrolet's racing number, is sported on the case back.

Chevrolet globally has had their marketing campaigns, songs, taglines, and slogans, these include,


GM buys Chevrolet - HISTORY

The Chevrolet
From 1916 to 1934



_____________________________

The life and times of the
Chevrolet logo

A Brief History of the Chevrolet

The Chevrolet began it's life in 1911 when a race car driver and automotive engineer Louis Chevrolet cofounded the Chevrolet Motor Car Company with William C. Durant and investors William Little and Dr. Edwin R. Campbell.
The design for the first Chevy, the Series C Classic Six was drawn up by Etienne Planche and was ready for production long before Chevrolet was actually incorporated.
This design was made by M. Etienne Planche on 15 March 1911 at a garage premises at number 707, later 3939 Grand River Avenue, Detroit. It appears that the small second story space above the garage was used for new engine design and construction only. Prototypes of the Chevrolet were produced in what would today be called a "pilot plant" in the 1145, West Grand Boulevard Plant that was used between August 1911 and August 1913.
By November 3, 1911 The Chevrolet Motor Car Company entered the turbulent automobile market.
Durant envisioned his new company as an inexpensive competitor to the Ford Model T.
He chose to name the company after its designer, Louis Chevrolet, because he liked the sound of the name and because Chevrolet was a prominent name in motor sports.
The Chevrolet family was poor and Louis was given only a basic education before he left home. He was not capable to be a designer/drawer, but got a great deal of technical experience, first in the wine and bicycle business in Europe, and then with several car dealers in New York after arrival in 1900. After joining the racing car business, chasing Barney Oldfield and others with success he was engaged by Durant first to the Buick racing team No. 1 with his brother, and later as a consultant adviser for the new car Durant had in mind.
Finally in 1934, GM put Louis Chevrolet on their payroll as a mechanic in one of the factories. Illness forced him to retire in 1938.
However the Louis' car: The Classic Six was far too expensive (USD 2100,-) to compete with the T-Ford, so Durant had to skip the big, expensive car and go for small, simple ones as the Little Four. As before, Louis disagreed. He "lost" his name to the car, but left with $10,000 and 100 shares in the Chevrolet Motor Car Company, and started working with another racing enthusiast, Albert Champion, on his racing career again.

The production of Chevrolet type C Six was so delayed that it became a 1913 model. From April 1912 until end of the year the Little Motor Company (owned by Chevrolet Motor Co.) produced 2999 Little Four's. All had "Little" as the emblem on the radiator (not Chevrolet). Regrettably there is still the published misnomer that Chevrolet built 2999 Classic Sixes as 1912 models as its first year of production. The first Chevrolet Six was ready for the dealers 2nd Jan. 1913, and was delivered to the first consumer 13th March. During July and August of 1914, all the remaining parts were used up and the Type C Classic production ended at Flint. Advertisements in August 1913 announced that the Little cars were now to be called "Chevrolets". Its 299 cubic inch, 6 cylinder engine could reach a top speed of 65 miles per hour.
The Chevrolet Bow Tie has been one of the World's most recognized trademarks since 1913, when William C. Durant first introduced the symbol that represents Chevrolet's winning success! The Bow Tie was used on the renamed Little cars for the 1914 season (late 1913).
A story in Chevrolet Pro Management Magazine, October 1986, which was copied in the May 1987 G&D, told that W.C. Durant did not copy the design from the wallpaper in a French hotel room, and that according to Mrs. Durant, the bow tie emblem was first seen by her husband in an illustrated Virginia newspaper, while they were vacationing in Hot Springs, Virginia around 1912. Mrs. Durant was quoted as recalling, "We were in a suite reading the papers, and he saw this design and said, 'I think this would be a very good emblem for the Chevrolet' " She did not explain how the newspaper used the emblem.
Chevrolet first used the Bowtie emblem in 1913. It is said to have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel but there are several other versions of how the bow tie came about.
The success of the 490 sales in 1915 gave Chevrolet a flying start in the low price market. The 490 sold at that time for $490. However, the 490 was already too under priced when introduced, as all margins had been as low as possible from start. Ford fought back by reducing his price (several times) and Durant had to increase the price for his 490's after some few months. He could not challenge the continuously cheaper T-Ford mass production, so Durant used a different method of competing. he added sought after features like electric lights and starter etc. and he introduced the closed bodies to capture some of the low price market. This method worked.
Ford was far ahead with much higher volume, but Durant made much higher profits on each car, which was one of the reasons that he was able to regain the ownership in GM in 1916.
Chevrolet continued to improve their cars and add options that the public wanted. Chevrolet offered the first radio option in 1924.
Chevrolet sold it's first truck in 1918 and in that year joined GM Corporation.
GM nearly went out of business in 1920, when up to 100,000 cars of the "490" were stored at the
factories, unsold for some time.

PartsgeekParts Catalog

I would like to invite any one that has a favorite Chevrolet picture or a Web Page that they would like added to this page to E mail me a copy.


Chevy Engine History - The History Of Chevrolet, Part X

Editor's note - Heading into the new century, we felt compelled to take a look back at what will undoubtedly be one of the 20th century's biggest contributions to daily life-the automobile. Of course, Super Chevy looks at the history of the automobile through the eyes of the Chevrolet enthusiast. The following is the tenth in a series that will run throughout the year 2000 and cover the highlights of Chevrolet-from the creation of a company at a time when 270 other companies were vying for buyers of new automobiles, to the present day, when the competition is limited to just a handful of serious automobile makers. Much of the information is taken straight from Chevrolet sources, and some will be from the pages of this magazine's more than 25 years as "The # 1 Chevrolet Enthusiast's Magazine."

Chevy Engines Through Time
When Chevrolet began building vehicles, they were powered by a 299ci, six-cylinder engine. These automobiles could reach a top speed of 65 mph "without taxing themselves," and accelerated from zero to 50 in an "astounding" 15 seconds. By today's standards this isn't too impressive, but at the time Chevrolet was one of the fastest vehicles on the road.

In the early years, there was a great deal of research and development dedicated to coming up with a powerful engine that could be produced for a reasonable price. Chevy's first V-8 engine was released in 1917. The 90-degree overhead-valve design debuted in the D-series, the last of the original long-wheelbase cars. The eight-cylinder lasted only two years, as Chevrolet dropped these "large" powerplants to develop four-cylinder versions. It would be 1929 before a six-cylinder reappeared, and a V-8 wouldn't be available again until the introduction of the legendary small-block in 1955, 36 years later.

New engine technology-including "copper-cooled" models-was explored during Chevy's first decade. These were superior vehicles with air-cooled engines instead of the traditional liquid-cooled models. The engine was the smallest in Chevrolet history a diminutive 135 cubic inches with a miniscule 20 horsepower. The experiment was brief the engine was plagued with production problems and was scrapped after only 759 units were built-yet it was a bold move by a growing automaker willing to take chances in an oft-skeptical market. Another attempt at air-cooling would take place 37 years later with the '60 Corvair.

By 1925, Chevrolet was considering the use of six-cylinders again. Having just designed a small six for the Oakland division, Chevrolet realized it would have to maintain the corporate advertising image, "Valve-in-Head, Ahead in Value." The valve-in-head "Stovebolt Six" resulted: 3.2 liters big and 46 horsepower strong.

At first, the industry looked upon this six with doubt. Manufacturers were heading toward using aluminum to save weight, but Chevrolet made the decision to persevere with iron. The engine was derided as the "Cast-Iron Wonder," and the "Stovebolt Six" moniker was originally meant to mock the engine. But it gained respect for its durability and easy-to-service features in both cars and trucks. Advertised as, "A Six for the Price of a Four" in 1929 models, the "Stovebolt Six" was better, more powerful, and in the same price range as the previous year's four-cylinder.

A "power war" was developing between the major auto companies during the mid-'30s: Ford's V-8 versus the six-cylinder engines from Chevrolet and Chrysler. To battle Ford's horsepower and top speed claims, Chevrolet introduced a new high-compression design, the "Blue Flame" Six, in 1934. It generated 15 more horsepower than previous sixes without increasing engine displacement. Chevrolet promoted the achievement by advertising "80 horsepower at 80 miles per hour," the only time in Chevy history that top speed was advertised.

Ford was pumping the market with V-8 engines during this time, and Chevy developed a new four-main-bearing six for its 1937 cars and trucks. The Chevy engine produced as much horsepower as the Ford, but with better economy (estimated 15 to 18 mpg).

In 1950, Chevy introduced a more powerful "Blue Flame" Six (with 235 cubic inches), and 300,000 Chevrolet cars equipped with "Powerglide" models were sold the first year. a record production year in which a whopping 2,108,273 Chevrolets were built!

As most Chevy enthusiasts know, the '55 Chevy made a huge impact on the automotive market when it showed up, and much of that impact came from the all-new 265-inch V-8 engine under the hood. An engineering milestone, the small-block almost instantly changed the poky image that Chevrolet had earned with its Stovebolt six. The new V-8 was peppy, smooth, tough, compact, and, unlike competitors' V-8 powerplants, it was light. The mouse motor, as it became known as, made big strides in its first few years, jumping from a 180 hp top offering in '55 to 225 available ponies the next year. Optional fuel injection in '57 helped a bigger, 283-inch small-block hit the magical, one-horsepower-per-cubic-inch mark. This made screamers out of both fullsize Chevys and Corvettes, and it certainly caught the attention of hot rodders, who soon started swapping small-blocks into just about every kind of car imaginable.

Chevrolet offered an all-new engine for 1958-the W-block 348 (which would eventually grow into the famed 409). Paired with the year-old Turboglide transmission, the 348 looked good on paper especially the 315hp version equipped with three two-barrel carbs. But most 348s could still be regularly outrun by the lighter, high-winding 283s. It would take a few more cubic inches before these early "big-blocks" would earn more performance respect.

The '59s were most notable under the hood, where an optional V-8 engine produced up to 315 bhp. This "burner" thrived during the "more power" competition between the manufacturers.

The SS Impala and its optional 409-cid V-8 quickly proved itself on the performance circuit. One of the first cars equipped with this new powerhouse blew away the competition at the 1961 Winternationals Drag Racing Championships, held in Pomona, California. In fact, the 409, coupled with a four-speed transmission and some handling extras, placed the Impala SS among the world's fastest automobiles at the time. For 1962, the SS package could be combined with an even gutsier, dual-quad, 409-horse 409.

An innovative departure from the crowd was introduced on the Corvair. An air-cooled, rear-mounted six-cylinder "pancake" engine powered the car (the first air-cooled Chevy since the mostly experimental 1923 copper-cooled model). Another compact car was the Monza Spyder a 150-horse, turbocharged "mover" that could outrun any Ford Falcon or Plymouth Valiant of the day.

Throughout the '60s the inline six remained popular, but it was the small-block V-8s that really came into their own. Fuel-injected 327s making up to 360 hp were highlights of the next generation of Corvettes, the Sting Rays. Carbureted 327s found their way into the '65-67 Nova SSs. The '66 Nova SS, when equipped with the available 350hp (L79) version of the 327 "Turbo-Fire" V-8, was one of the hottest performers in the compact class. In 1967, the most popular configuration of the small-block V-8, the 350, made its debut. It found a welcome home in the newly introduced Camaro.

Of course, a new generation of big-block V-8s made a big impact in the '60s as well. The 396 made its debut in 1965, and was a standout performer in Corvette trim, pumping out 425 hp. A 375-horse version made it into a select few '65 Chevelles (Z-16s), and by '66 the SS396 package was a big seller in the Chevelle line. A larger, 427-inch big-block added more heat to the 'Vette that year, paving the way for the legendary L88 the following few years. The big-block eventually grew to 454 cubic inches, and by 1970 cranked out 450 hp in LS6 trim.

For 1971, ratings would be displayed as "net" horsepower, rather than the brawny "bhp," or brake horsepower ratings that had been performance benchmarks. The plummeting numbers began to reflect the awakening of energy conservation an awareness that would increase dramatically in this new decade. In addition, the 1973 oil embargo caused gas prices to double within two years. Suddenly, fuel economy was important. very important. Fuel concerns led to smaller, more efficient cars.

Though the big-motored behemoths were gone from the dealerships, performance was still on the minds of more than just a few buyers. The second-generation Chevrolet subcompact-Monza-evolved in 1975 as a sporty offshoot of the Vega platform. A front-engine, rear-drive hatchback, Monza provided smaller engines for the energy-conscious, yet offered optional V-8 power for those still wanting punch under the hood. In fact, its 262-cid V-8 was the smallest eight-cylinder in Chevrolet history.

The Chevy Sprint, a unique three-cylinder minicar, was introduced on the West Coast in 1984, and was the smallest car to ever wear a Bow-Tie. Imported from Suzuki Motor in Japan, Sprint economy was so outstanding that it became the fuel-miser champ in 1986 when the "ER" arrived-EPA-rated at of 55 mpg city and 60 mpg highway. (There was even a sporty limited production turbo version, a founding member of the now-burgeoning sport compact car craze.)

Chevrolet introduced the special Corvette ZR-1 in 1990. Designed in a cooperative effort between General Motors and Lotus, the LT5 V-8 engine sported four cams and 32 valves, producing 375 horsepower. 1993 marked a number of upgrades and improvements. The outstanding Corvette ZR-1 received a refined LT5 engine, cranking out an unbelievable 405 horsepower.

Trucks weren't ignored throughout Chevy's history, either. On a much less obvious basis, many half- and three-quarter ton pickups over the years were ordered with a stout big-block beneath the hood. One hauler was even promoted as a performance version, and was called the 454 SS. Under the hood of the 454 "SS" was a 454-cid Mark V big-block V-8, hence the name (despite the fact that the power levels didn't live up to its moniker, it still made the competition nervous, and it could definitely haul things to the dump).

The Ever-Popular Small-Block
When you think of the best engines of all time ,there's one that definitely stands out-the 1955 Chevy small-block. While that engine has unquestionably set the standard by which all engines since have been judged, it's not the only milestone in Chevrolet's history. Many of the various powerplants that have provided motivation for Chevy's cars and trucks throughout time were innovative works of art in their own right, but none ever came close to having the same effect on our hobby as the little mouse motor has.

Fortunately, Chevy hasn't rested on its laurels. Today an array of impressive powerplants are available (though most of the really exciting ones-sans the LS1-can only be had through the GM Performance Parts division and not on the cars found on the dealer's showroom floor).

Today's vehicles are primarily designed to simply get people from one place to the next without much emphasis placed on performance. Corvette and Camaro are the only holdouts from the high-performance arena. Both of Chevy's sports cars currently offer the impressive LS1 engine and a performance package at a price that's nothing short of phenomenal. Sadly, sales of these two vehicles (the F-body's are dismal and the 'Vette only accounts for a small percentage of Chevy's overall revenue) has left them without many supporters in GM's corporate structure. Furthermore, the Camaro is said to go on hiatus following the 2002 model year for an undisclosed period and there are no guarantees on what type of ride, if any at all, will emerge from the other end of that dark tunnel.

One Horsepower Per Square Inch
For a long time, one horsepower per cubic inch (of displacement) was the unobtainable goal. A milestone to be pondered: "Wouldn't it be cool to get a horse per inch?" Today, reaching that level is a fairly simple task (although few production cars make it there). With simple bolt-ons from the performance aftermarket, enthusiasts can achieve well in excess of one horse per cubic inch. Super Chevy magazine has built engines that churn out horsepower three times the displacement numbers.

Chevrolet first hit the one-horsepower-per-cubic-inch level in 1957. The 283 small-block was fitted with Rochester mechanical fuel injection (called "Ramjet injection") and churned out an impressive 283 ponies (a number that grew to 290 the following year). Unfortunately, though, Chrysler beat Chevy to the punch by making a whopping 355 horsepower with its 354 cubic-inch Hemi a year before.

Many of the higher-horsepower engines were actually power packages added to the base engine. Engineers knew that the standard-equipment engines benefited greatly from a little better breathing. The answer was to offer special packages that featured bigger carburetors (or multiple carbs, or fuel injection). The dual-quad carburetor setup (also immortalized in the Beach Boys song "409") was part of a power package designed to beat the competition in the horsepower game. At one time there were 158 different versions of the small-block being produced by Chevrolet-that's a lot of different ways to get power.


By the end of 1919, General Motors became only the second company in America to be capitalized at $1 billion.

Alfred P. Sloan Jr., a slim and serious man, took over General Motors as president in 1923 and dominated the company for the next 30 years. Mr. Sloan saw his immediate task clearly: a battle with Ford, the other great automaker at the time, for the “low-price, high-volume” automobile market. The Fisher deal made it possible for GM to compete with closed-body vehicles, which were, as he put it, “by far the largest single leap forward in the history of the automobile since the basic car had been made mechanically available.”

Mr. Sloan understood the future. Closed-body cars made a new driving experience possible, quite different from the open-air thrill that Henry Ford pioneered. With a hard roof, year-round travel was possible. Drivers could go on longer journeys (especially as roads improved). Closed-body cars also offered more anonymity, a potential boon for the small but rising number of African-American drivers. Suddenly, everyone wanted to be on the road.

But closed-body cars sold at high prices. After inking the deal with Fisher, GM was able to work its way toward selling closed two-door Chevrolets at prices that were within striking distance of Ford’s Model T. “The rise of the closed body made it impossible for Mr. Ford to maintain his leading position in the low price field, for he had frozen his policy in the Model T, and the Model T was pre-eminently an open car design,” Mr. Sloan wrote. “The old master had failed to master change,” he added. “Don’t ask me why.”

The company did more than just sell cars it revolutionized consumer behavior. In 1919, it created the General Motors Acceptance Corporation so that customers could buy cars on credit. This vastly expanded the market for mass production, and beyond the auto industry, it transformed the way that expensive items are bought and sold. It also used planned obsolescence: Vehicles debuted as new annual models. GM thrived by betting on the diversity of consumer preference. It was the first to offer cars in colors other than black and invested heavily in design. Its cars have become ingrained in American culture, from the 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air to the 1977 Pontiac Trans Am. Car buffs exult at the tail fins of an Eldorado or the split windows of a Corvette Stingray as if they were sculpted by Michelangelo.

Although GM profits certainly enriched stockholders, they also fueled the rise of the middle class. That included the company’s huge labor pool, particularly after a sit-down strike in 1936-37 won the United Auto Workers the right to bargain collectively. Later, GM pioneered an employee benefit plan, akin to a 401(k), to entice the workers that it desperately needed. That, plus no-interest loans on the homes the company built, spurred a migration of new workers from around the world. America would never be the same.

General Motors and its army of workers transformed scores of American cities, including Detroit and Flint Janesville, Wisc. Lordstown, Ohio Trenton, N.J. Indianapolis and many other places that were built around their GM and Fisher plants — physically, politically and culturally. Like a photo negative, recent plant closures and cuts reveal how urban history is interlaced with General Motors history. Even in cities like Flint, where it has been in retreat for decades, GM’s shadow still looms: Mammoth vacant lots where auto plants once stood have required decades of work to repurpose, thanks in part to extensive soil contamination. At the same time, the patronage of yesteryear is visible in institutions like the Flint Institute of Arts, the Flint Symphony and Kettering University, the cooperative college formerly known as the General Motors Institute, founded in 1919.

But if GM was ahead of its time in some ways, it reflected it in others, especially around race. Its neighborhoods for working families were for whites only. Home prices kept out African-Americans, who were relegated to GM’s lowest-paying jobs. Insultingly, the same deed restrictions that prohibited livestock, liquor sales and outhouses in these sparkling new subdivisions also stipulated that they could not be occupied by anyone who was not “wholly of the white or Caucasian race.” In an ad from the 1920s, the exclusive realtor of GM homes assured buyers that “no shacks, huts, or foreign communities will be allowed.”

GM was far from alone in pushing a lily-white vision of the country’s future . And in putting its muscle behind segregation, it helped create patterns of inequality that remain with us today. This was exacerbated by the highways built through black neighborhoods to subsidize the new motoring class of suburban drivers. Disinvestment has consequences. It is not a coincidence that safe, affordable drinking water has been difficult to get in Flint, still recovering from a water crisis, or in Detroit, plagued by shut-offs.


16 Bad: 2008 Chevy Silverado

The 2008 Chevy Silverado had the potential to be a very solid pickup truck, but it really had far too many issues at the end of the day. This is largely because of the apparent fact that Chevy really did not look over the clear malfunctions of this truck before it was released. The 2008 Chevy Silverado is widely considered to be one of the worst trucks of the late 2000s and it definitely is not worth investing in at this present time. The Silverado is a prized series of pickups that have given us some truly wonderful trucks, but this one was a complete lemon.


Chip woes: GM to keep Fairfax plant down into July

Detroit — General Motors Co. updated its semiconductor plant impacts Friday, saying it will keep one plant down through the first week of July as the company continues to battle the chip supply shortage.

The Detroit automaker confirmed that Fairfax Assembly in Kansas, where the Cadillac XT4 and Chevrolet Malibu are built, which has been down since Feb. 8, will remain down through at least the week of July 5.

General Motors employees work on the assembly line Friday, April 26, 2019 at Fairfax Assembly & Stamping Plant in Kansas City, Kansas. The Fairfax facility produces the Cadillac XT4. (Photo: Jim Barcus for General Motors, File)

The CAMI Assembly plant in Ingersoll, Ontario, where the Chevrolet Equinox is built, will remain down through June 28. It has also been down since the week of Feb. 8.

Additionally, GM's Lansing Grand River Assembly, where the Chevrolet Camaro and Cadillac CT4 and CT5 are built, will take downtime beginning the week of May 10 and through the week of June 28. The plant will still have pre-production volume of the 2022 model year Cadillac Black Wing in June.

The San Luis Potosi Assembly plant in Mexico, where the Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain are built, will take downtime the weeks of May 17 and May 24. GM's Ramos Assembly plant in Mexico, where the Chevrolet Blazer and Equinox are built, will take downtime beginning the week of May 3 and through the week of May 24.

GM also noted that its midsize truck and commercial van plant, Wentzville Assembly in Missouri, has temporarily moved from three production shifts to two shifts. But the plant will continue running Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon mid-size pickups full volume until the scheduled launch changeover in late May.

This began the week of April 26 and will last until the plant goes down for its scheduled launch changeover the week of May 24.


Daewoo's Epic Flop Wasn't the End for Its Cars

Remember Daewoo? The third South Korean automaker snuck quietly onto the American scene in 1998, with three models and a sales plan that involved college students hawking the cars, Avon-style, to their friends. So what ever happened to Daewoo? The dealers disappeared in 2002, but their cars are still very much of a presence here in the U.S. Here's what happened, and why.

The New Daewoos Are in Early This Year

Daewoo certainly got an auspicious start. While Hyundai and Kia both started with a single model (the Excel and Sportage, respectively), Daewoo started with a comprehensive lineup of three. The entry-level Lanos was available as both a two-door hatch or a four-door sedan, powered by a 105-hp 1.6-liter engine. With power steering, antilock brakes, power windows and power locks as standard, it was a good buy for $8,900. The compact Nubira came as a sedan, wagon and a short-lived, bizarre-looking hatchback, Like the Lanos it was quite lavishly equipped for its $12,000 price. Power came from 129-hp, 2.0-liter engine available with a stick or a four-speed automatic.

Top of the lineup was the Giugiaro-penned Leganza, its name a portmanteau of the Italian words elegante (elegant) and forza (power), neither of which really applied to the car. But it was brisk enough with its 131-hp, 2.2-liter engine. Four-wheel discs, a stick shift, A/C and a 100-watt premium stereo were standard, and a full leather interior was optional, making it a viable Camry alternative at a rock-bottom $15,000 price.

Daewoo Gets Educated

All three were just-okay cars, a hodgepodge of mechanical parts from Holden and Opel, General Motors' Australian and European bureaus. (GM at the time had a stake in Daewoo, and the 1988-94 Pontiac LeMans was an Opel Kadett assembled in Korea by Daewoo.) But Daewoo had an innovative idea for selling them, using college student "campus advisers" who got a $300-$500 commission on each lead that turned into a sale. These advisors got a free trip to Seoul for training, use of a car for 90 days, and a 50 percent discount off the sticker price.

Sales were slow, though, and it shouldn't come as a big surprise that more than half of the cars sold in those first few months were bought by the campus advisors themselves. The students later filed a class-action lawsuit against Daewoo not only did they have to pay sales tax on the full sticker price, but they were surprised to learn that the 50 percent discount was reported as income to the IRS.

Student uprisings aside, Daewoo didn't last long: Their U.S. foray corresponded with the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis. Daewoo Motors soon found itself in trouble, and in 1999 the car division was sold off to General Motors and reorganized as GM Daewoo and later GM Korea. Daewoo sales never took off in the States, and their American experiment was halted in 2002.

Daewoo's Absurd Afterlife: The Chevy/Suzuki Era

And what of the cars? Though Daewoo gave up on the U.S., the cars lived a lot longer than you might expect—even here in the States.

Production of the Lanos ceased in 2002, but GM continued to sell the car in knocked-down kit form to developing markets and third-world nations. As of 2020 you can still buy a Lanos in Egypt, though it's now labeled as a Chevrolet. Meanwhile, GM Daewoo's replacement for the Lanos, the Kalos, was available stateside as the thoroughly-awful Chevrolet Aveo.

The Nubura was redesigned after Daewoo's 2002 retreat as the Daewoo Lacetti, though that was just one of many monikers it wore. Fans of classic Top Gear will recognize the Lacetti as one of the show's Reasonably Priced Car stars. In 2004, the Lacetti came to Stateside Suzuki dealerships, where it as known as the Forenza in sedan and wagon form and the Reno as a (more conventional than the original) four-door hatchback.

The Leganza's return was a bit more bizarre: It too was refashioned as the Daewoo Magnus, and those ingenious Koreans managed to shoehorn a 2.5-liter inline six-cylinder engine sideways between the car's front wheels. Still playing up its Italian heritage, the car was brought to the States as the Suzuki Verona. A colleague who reviewed it told me it reminded him less of Verona, Italy, and more of Verona, New Jersey.

The Daewoos did well for Suzuki the brand topped 100,000 U.S. sales for the first time in 2006, and the Forenza, Reno, and Verona must have played some part in that, no matter how small. But Suzuki sales fell off a cliff during the 2008 economic downturn. The cars disappeared, and so did the Suzuki brand.

The Daewoo Is Coming From Inside the House

But Daewoo is not gone from the U.S.—not by a long shot. GM Daewoo became GM Korea in 2011, and it plays a significant role in General Motors engineering, perhaps a bigger role than GM would like to let on to the gung-ho buy-American section of its buyer base.

Today, GM Korea handles the bulk of engineering for GM's smaller vehicles. The Chevrolet Spark and about-to-be-discontinued Sonic are GM Korea designs, as are the Buick Encore (and Encore GX), and Chevrolet's Trax and Trailblazer. Bolt EV? Yep, that's a Daewoo, too—in fact, GM has partnered with Korea-based LG Chem for the Ultim Cells battery system, which will power the upcoming GMC Hummer EV.

Incidentally, Daewoo built other types of vehicles as well, and those divisions has been scattered to the winds. The truck division was sold to Indian automaker Tata in 2004, and Tata-Daewoo is now the second-largest truck producer in South Korea. Daewoo's bus business was spun off into Zyle Daewoo Commercial Vehicle, and sells buses in Korea and several developing markets.

Still want a Daewoo? Travel to South Korea and you can find plenty. Or you could just buy a Chevrolet Trailblazer. Sorry, though—no 50 percent student discounts.


Guide til bilmerker

Here we list each major car brand and its parent corporation, including some retired brands whose products are still readily available as used cars.

Merke: Parent Company

Acura: Honda Motor Company
Alfa Romeo: Stellantis
Audi: Volkswagen Group
BMW: BMW Group
Bentley: Volkswagen Group
Buick: General Motors
Cadillac: General Motors
Chevrolet: General Motors
Chrysler: Stellantis
dukke: Stellantis
Fiat: Stellantis
Ford: Ford Motor Co.
GMC: General Motors
1 Mosebok: Hyundai Motor Group
Honda: Honda Motor Co.
Hyundai: Hyundai Motor Group
Infiniti: Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance
Jaguar: Tata Motors
Jeep: Stellantis
Kia: Hyundai Motor Group
Land Rover: Tata Motors
Lexus: Toyota Motor Corp.
Lincoln: Ford Motor Co.
Lotus: Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
Maserati: Stellantis
Mazda: Mazda Motor Corp.
Mercedes-Benz: Daimler AG
Mercury*: Ford Motor Co.
Mini: BMW Group
Mitsubishi: Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance
Nikola: Nikola Motor Company, with a supply relationship with General Motors.
Nissan: Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance
Polestar: Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
Pontiac*: General Motors
Porsche: Volkswagen Group
RAM: Stellantis
Rivian: Rivian Automotive, with investments from Amazon and Ford, among others.
Rolls-Royce: BMW Group
Saab: brand owned by Saab AB assets owned by National Electric Vehicle Sweden
Saturn*: General Motors
Scion*: Toyota Motor Corp.
Smart: Daimler AG
Subaru: Subaru Corp.
Suzuki*: Suzuki Motor Corp. Owns a small stake in Toyota.
Tesla: Tesla Inc.
Toyota: Toyota Motor Corp.
Volkswagen: Volkswagen AG.
Volvo: Zhejiang Geely Holding Group


Se videoen: GMs CES 2021 keynote in 10 minutes