Poppi slott og den morderiske fru Matilda

Poppi slott og den morderiske fru Matilda


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Poppi Castle er et middelalderslott med utsikt over Casentino -dalen i provinsen Arezzo i den italienske regionen Toscana. Dette slottet sies å ha blitt bygget rundt andre halvdel av 13 th århundre e.Kr., selv om noen kilder hevder at referanser til Poppi Castle kan bli funnet i dokumenter som dateres tilbake til slutten av 12 th århundre f.Kr. I dag regnes Poppi slott som et av Toscanas best bevarte slott.

Poppi Castle ble bygget av Guidi -familien, og forble i deres besittelse til 15 th århundre. Guidiene var en føydal familie som sies å stamme tilbake til 10 th århundre, og hadde kontroll over Casentino -dalen. Bortsett fra Poppi slott, hadde Guidi -familien andre høyborg i Casentino -dalen, så vel som i regioner lenger opp nord. En populær legende er at ved hjelp av et system med lys og speil kan Guidis sende en melding fra Poppi til den franske grensen på mindre enn 8 timer.

Slottoppsett

Slottets opprinnelige kjerne var det høye firkantede tårnet. Denne strukturen dominerte, og gjør det selv i dag, resten av slottet, så vel som den underliggende dalen. Imidlertid er det nåværende tårnet en rekonstruksjon av originalen, ettersom restaureringsarbeid måtte utføres etter at det ble skadet av et lynnedslag. Det opprinnelige tårnet var høyere og hadde machicolations (en ekstra forsvarsmekanisme, hvorfra steiner og kokende væsker kunne slippes på angriperne via åpninger i gulvet) på toppen. Ifølge legenden ble denne imponerende strukturen brukt som modell for byggingen av tårnet på Palazzo Vecchio i Firenze.

Utsikt over Poppi slott. Bildekilde: ( CC BY 2.0 )

Rundt tårnet er et inngjerdet inngjerdet, som de andre delene av slottet utviklet seg fra. Det er bare to porter som gir tilgang til Poppi Castle. Hovedporten nås ved å stige opp en bratt rampe med tilgang, og ligger på siden mot dalen og forstaden Ponte a Poppi, byens gamle markedsplass. Den andre porten ligger på siden mot torget.

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Slottet har også en beholdning, som inneholder fra laveste til høyeste etasje: et fengsel, et depositum og et boligområde. Keepet ble en gang skilt fra tårnet (bare forbundet med en bro i øverste etasje), for å gjøre det vanskeligere for angriperne å okkupere begge strukturene. I dag er tårnet og tårnet forbundet med en gardinvegg.

Poppi Castle Sett fra nord. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Beryktede beboere

En av Poppi slottets mest beryktede innbyggere sies å ha vært en kvinne ved navn Matilda / Matelda. Ifølge noen kilder var Matilda kona til en eldre grev Guidi, mens andre hevder at hun var datter av den regjerende familien. Uansett var Matilda misfornøyd med ekteskapet, og søkte selskap med de unge mennene fra byen. Etter å ha invitert en av dem til slottet, ville hun overnatte hos ham. Før solen gikk opp, ville hun imidlertid sende mannen hjem.

Poppi slott fra Andrea Mignolo | Blinkende by på Vimeo.

Matilda sies å ha brukt bakdøren, for å unngå å bli fanget i hor. For å sikre at ryktet hennes ikke ble tilsmusset, ville hun stille sine elskere for godt. Uten at de visste det, inneholdt stien som ble vist dem av Matilda en falldør, som sendte elskerne til å falle i døden. Forsvinningen av unge menn ga snart mistanke til byfolket. Til slutt stormet en sint mobb på slottet, fanget Matilda, lot henne mure i tårnet og dro for å dø. Ifølge noen kilder forfølger spøkelsen til Matilda fortsatt slottet.

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Slutt på Guidis -regelen

I 1440 mistet Guidi -familien Poppi -slottet, som falt i hendene på Republikken Firenze. Det er registrert at Guidi -familien hadde støttet Milan under en av deres konflikter med Firenze. Da milaneserne ble beseiret av florentinerne, ble Guidi -familien tvunget til å overgi seg. Poppi slott ble beslaglagt av florentinerne, og guidiene ble eksilert, og dermed tok slutt på deres styre i Casentino -dalen.

Utsikt over det gotiske tårnet og merlons på Castle of Poppi ( CC BY 2.0 )


Slottet i Wolfenbach

Slottet i Wolfenbach (1793) er den mest kjente romanen [1] skrevet av den engelske gotiske forfatteren Eliza Parsons. Først utgitt i to bind i 1793, er den blant de syv "fryktelige romanene" anbefalt av karakteren Isabella Thorpe i Jane Austens roman Northanger Abbey og et viktig tidlig verk i sjangeren, før Ann Radcliffes Udolphos mysterier og Monk Lewis Munken.

Kjære skapning! Hvor mye jeg er forpliktet til deg og når du er ferdig Udolpho, vil vi lese Den italienske sammen, og jeg har laget en liste med ti eller tolv flere av samme slag for deg.

Har du det, virkelig! Hvor glad jeg er! Hva er de alle?

Jeg vil lese navnene deres for deg direkte her i lommeboken min. Slottet i Wolfenbach, Clermont, Mystiske advarsler, Necromancer fra Schwarzwald, Midnattsklokke, Foreldreløs av Rhinen, og Fryktelige mysterier. De vil vare oss en stund.

Ja, ganske bra, men er de alle fryktelige, er du sikker på at de alle er fryktelige?

Northanger Abbey, Kapittel 6

Jane Austen navn Slottet i Wolfenbach i romanen hennes Northanger Abbey å fremstille den gotiske romanen som dannende rundt et eget samfunn, og gi bevis på lesertall og interesse på tvers av kjønn og på tvers av kjønn i den gotiske romanen. [2] Den inneholder de standard gotiske troppene til den skyldfrie jenta i nød, sentraliteten i en enorm, dyster, gammel bygning til tomten, oppdagelsen av skandaløse familiehemmeligheter og en siste konfrontasjon mellom krefter på godt og ondt. Den resolutt anti-katolske, pro-engelske protestantiske stemningen er også et trekk ved sjangeren.


Legenden om den vakre damen Matilda på Poppi slott

Hvis du bestemmer deg for å tilbringe en fantastisk ferie til Toscana og ønsker å legge til noen spennende turistattraksjoner i turplanene dine, ville et besøk på Poppi slott i Casentino -dalen være en utmerket dagstur.

Du kan lære alt om den hjemsøkende legenden om en pen, men forferdelig jomfru som heter Matilda. Besøkende som ønsker å bo i Casentino -dalen i noen dager, har et vell av flotte gårdshus tilgjengelig for dem, hvor de enkelt kan pendle til det beryktede Poppi -slottet for å lære om sin fargerike historie!

Hun var den vakreste kvinnen i landet, ønsket av alle menn, men hun var i ung alder gift med den mektigste mannen i Poppi. Han var en del av 'Guidi' som styrte Toscana med jernhånd. Han var en gammel mann som brukte mye av tiden sin på militærvirksomhet. Matilda følte ingen kjærlighet til sin eldre ektemann da han var streng i hjertet og ikke kunne tilfredsstille behovene hennes. Hun var misunnelig på vanlige mennesker som hun så på fra slottet sitt, som var fri til å gifte seg med dem de ønsket og så ut til å leve slike bekymringsløse liv.

Hun begynte å sende inn kvalifiserte unge ungkarer for å komme til slottet for å utføre reparasjonsarbeid eller sørge for underholdning for henne. De ville gjerne gjøre alt hun ba om, da alle raskt ble forelsket i den vakre Matilda. Hun sole seg i denne store kjærligheten og valgte hver kveld en av disse mennene til å komme til kammeret hennes for å overnatte.
Morgenen etter, før soloppgang, førte hun dem ut av en bakdør for å unngå å bli fanget av ekteskapsbruddet. Men disse mennene skulle aldri forlate slottet igjen i live. De gikk over en falldør som ga bort under dem der de falt til en blodig død blant skarpe barberblader og knust glass!

Matilda gledet seg over sine uhyrlige planer om å lokke menn til å nyte en lidenskapelig natt med henne før de møtte en grusom død, men snart begynte byfolk å legge merke til det økende antallet menn som på mystisk vis ‘forsvant’ etter å ha jobbet i Poppi slott i en periode. Ryktene om Matildas onde måter spredte seg som ild i tørt gress over landet, og den ene enden for denne legenden forteller at innbyggerne stormet inn i slottet i store mengder, fanget Matilda og fanget henne i et tårn på slottet. De bygde opp alle dørene og lot henne dø en langsom død for sine synder.

I dag har mange mennesker som bor i Poppi hevdet å ha sett spøkelsen til Matilda, så vakker som legenden beskriver og kledd i hvitt. Det sies at hun ofte står ved vinduet til tårnet hun var fanget i, nå kalt 'Torre dei Diavoli' som betyr 'Devils Tower'.

Turister ville grundig glede seg over den fascinerende turen som Poppi Castle tilbyr, hvor de kan gå rundt i rommene der denne rystende fortellingen ble vevd for så mange år siden.

Dette er bare en av legendene beskrevet i en berømt italiensk dokumentar om legendene i Toscana. Du kan kjøpe dvd'en hvorav en episode er dedikert til det vakre slottet Matelda of Poppi via denne lenken.

En beslektet artikkel beskriver disse legender og andre som har beriket Toscanas historie og kan hjelpe deg med å planlegge en ferie her med en forskjell!


Innhold

Slottet begynte som et ringverk fra slutten av 1000-tallet. En rektangulær steinholder og hovedgardinveggen ble lagt til av normannerne på 1100 -tallet, under familien de Turberville. Den tre etasjer store var først og fremst en defensiv struktur. [3]

Omfattende omarbeidelse fant sted på 1300 -tallet, da et husholdningsområde ble festet til beholderen ved det midterste porthuset. Nye steinhvelv erstattet de tidligere tregulvene. Den sentrale åttekantede bryggen for hvelvene er fremdeles fremtredende blant slottsruinene. En tilstøtende kapellfløy med et høyt østvindu ble lagt til i første etasje i den østlige enden av det innenlandske området på 1400 -tallet.

Thomas de la Bere døde som mindreårig 28. oktober 1414, hvoretter herredømmet gikk tilbake til Sarah de Turberville, den yngste søsteren til Richard de Turberville, som tilsynelatende hadde produsert mannlige avkom fra ekteskapet med William Gamage. Det var i de få årene etter Sir Lawrence Berkerolles død mye generell omrokering av eiendomsinteresser i Glamorgan, for eksempel med familien Stradling. Sarahs ekteskap med Sir William Gamage fra Roggiett, Gwent, førte herredømmet inn i Gamage -familien, hvor det ble værende til 1584. Gamage -arven ble imidlertid ikke lett oppnådd for i september 1412, det vil si mens den antatte sanne arvingen minor Thomas de la Bere var fremdeles i live, William Gamage assistert av Sir Gilbert Denys (d. 1422) fra Siston, Gloucestershire, og tidligere fra Waterton-by-Ewenny, [4] i Coity herredskap, beleiret Coity i en måned, og prøvde å drev Lady Joan Verney, kona til Sir Richard Verney og datter av Margaret de Turberville, fra slottet. Det ser ut til at Joan hadde tatt bolig for å hevde sitt eget krav til Coity i forvirringen etter Berkerolles død. Siden hun var en kvinne, enke og uten sønn, ble hennes påstand tydeligvis ansett som svak eller ganske falsk. [ original forskning? ] [ trenger Kilde ] Oppføringen i patentrullene er:

Westminster 16. september 1412. Kommisjon til William Newport, Chivaler, Rees ap Thomas, John Organ, William Sparenore, Richard Delabere og Robert Wytney om informasjon om at Gilbert Denys, Chivaler og William Gamedge, uten noen moderat mengde væpnede menn, har gått til slottet Coytif i Wales og beleirer det og har til hensikt å utvise Joan, sen kona til Richard Vernon, Chivaler, fra hennes besittelse av det, for å gå så stille som de kan til slottet og heve beleiringen, føre til at proklamasjon blir gjorde at ingen som har smerter ved fortapelse skal beleire det, men de som later som rett og tittel i det, skal saksøke i henhold til lov og skikk. Arrest og fengsle alle som er imot dem og attestere det for kongen i kansleriet. Av K.

Kongen hadde derfor gitt sine lokale leietakere en kommisjon om å heve beleiringen og ga en annen kommisjon en måned senere til John Grendour for samme formål. [5] [ original forskning? ] Denys og Gamage havnet i Tower of London for å ha tatt loven i egne hender, fra 19. november 1412 til 3. juni 1413, og ble løslatt etter Henry IVs død. [6] Handlingen deres viste seg imidlertid å lykkes med å håndheve Gamage -kravet til Coity. Denys eldste datter Joan var kona til en viss Thomas Gamage, [7] muligens bror til William. En annen av Denys døtre, Matilda, etter hans 2. kone, giftet seg med en annen Thomas Gamage, sønn eller barnebarn av William og Sarah, og ble derved Lady of Coity etter ektemannens etterfølger, og produserte en sønn og arving John Gamage. [8]

I løpet av 1500 -tallet gjennomgikk Coity Castle, da eid av Gamage -familien, en fullstendig ombygging av boligkvarteret, inkludert tillegg av etasje, nye vinduer og to skorsteinstabler. Hovudkamrene lå i de øvre etasjene. Utvalget av husleiligheter besto av en sentral hall i første etasje som var plassert over et hvelvet undertaket, hvorfra det ble nådd med en stor vindeltrapp. Mot vest var servicerom i første etasje, sannsynligvis inkludert et kjøkken, med ovner. Basen til en ødelagt stor maltovn gjenstår. På den andre siden av serien inneholdt et tårn som rakte ut fra gardinveggen latriner. Andre etasje inneholdt private leiligheter. [9]

Gamage -familien holdt Coity til John Gamages død i 1584. [10] Slottet ble forlatt rundt 1600 -tallet. [ trenger Kilde ] Slottet ble solgt på 1700 -tallet til Edwins of Llanharry. Gjennom Edwins gikk Coity -herredømmet over til Earls of Dunraven. [11]

Slottruinene er nå under omsorg for Cadw.

Damplokomotiv nummer 5035 i Great Western Railway Castle -klassen fikk navnet Coity Castle. [12]


Legendene, historien og spøkelsene på Poppi Castle

Vi har snakket om Poppi slott før, men bare for å diskutere den grusomme legenden om Matilda, den vakreste kvinnen i området som ble gift av ung med en gammel mektig mann fra Guidi -familien, som styrte Toscana med jernhånd.

Ikke så glad i mannen sin og sjalu på friheten til vanlige mennesker, begynte hun å sende til kvalifiserte unge ungkarer for å komme til Poppi slott for å utføre reparasjoner eller underholde henne. Hver kveld valgte hun en av disse mennene til å komme til kammeret hennes for å overnatte og morgenen etter, for å unngå at ekteskapsbruddet ble oppdaget, dyttet hun dem gjennom en falldør der de falt til en blodig død blant barberblader og knust glass . Da antallet savnede unge menn begynte å bli lagt merke til, ryktes det om Matilda, og ifølge legenden stormet byens innbyggere på slottet. Matilda ble fanget i et tårn på slottet og døren var muret opp, og lot henne sulte i hjel.

I dag sies det at hun hjemsøker slottet, og mange observasjoner av et vakkert spøkelse har blitt rapportert gjennom årene. Det er imidlertid mye mer til slottet, utover denne grusomme historien. Først nevnt i 1169, da det tilhørte klosteret San Fidele de Strumi, gikk det over til Conti Guidi på 1190 -tallet.

Dokumentasjon av slottet har en tendens til å relatere til slutten av det tolvte århundre, men analyse av grunnlaget tyder på at det var en tidligere struktur på stedet og at den nåværende bygningen er fra det trettende århundre. Det sies å ha blitt designet av Arnolfo di Cambio, arkitekten for Firenzes Palazzo Vecchio, som han antas å ha modellert på Poppi slott.

Som med slike bygninger ble det lagt til og endret i løpet av årene, fram til 1800-tallet da lynskader krevde ommodellering, men det har ikke vært alvorlige modifikasjoner siden denne tiden.

En av slottets hovedattraksjoner er Guidi -kapellet, som er dekket av fresker av Taddeo Gaddi, som var elev av Giotto. Slottets historie er imidlertid også viktig - den virkelige så vel som den legendariske - to berømte toskanske kamper involverte slottet slaget ved Campaldino og slaget ved Anghiari.

Selve Poppi regnes som en av "De vakreste landsbyene i Italia" og ligger i hjertet av Casentino, en dal kjent for natur, kunst og historie, og mat- og vinturisme. Bare finn en feriebolig i Casentino og utforsk denne fascinerende perlen selv.


Innhold

Guidi -familien stammet fra Lombards bosatte seg i Toscana på midten av 900 -tallet. [2] Guidi -familiens legende uttalte at stamfaren til familien, Tegrimo Guidi, prestisjerte Lady Engelrada, datteren til hertug Martino av Ravenna, med en hjort han hadde drept. Denne gesten vant henne gunst og de to var gift, noe som økte Tegrimos innflytelse blant adelsmennene i Emilia-Romagna. [2] [3]

I 960 hadde Guido Guidi, sønn av Tegrimo, ervervet eiendom i Sieve's vally, gitt ham av Oberto, sønn av Hugh, Margrave i Toscana. [2] Guido utvidet også familiekontrollen over byen Pistoia. I Pistoia eide familien en rekke hus med et tårn i nærheten av bymurene som ledet porten. Som et resultat ble inngangen til byen kjent som Porta Guidi. [2]

Guidos sønn, Giovanni Guidi, bodde som munk i Firenze. i 1035 anklaget han flere kirkelige medlemmer for simoni, og ble tvunget til å flykte fra byen som et resultat. Han søkte tilflukt i Eremitasjen til Acqua Bella. Her hjalp han med å gjøre eremittet til et fremtredende kloster. [2]

Guido Guidis andre sønn, også kalt Guido, levde i åpent fiendskap med kirken og kom i konflikt med Peter Damian etter farens død i 1010. [2] i 1043, kjøpte Guido byen Empoli fra Pisa. Guido frarøvet også klosteret i Firenze for gull, juveler og gjenstander.

Guido hadde også en sønn som het Guido. I motsetning til faren var Guido på god fot med presteskapet og ble påvirket av reformbevegelsen i Firenze ledet av Giovanni Gualberto. [2] [4] Guido returnerte gullet og juvelene som ble plyndret fra klosteret i Firenze av faren og betalte for byggingen av et sykehus i byen. [2] Guido sto på siden av Matilda fra Toscana under Investiture Controversy. [2] Guidos to sønner, Guido og Tegrimo forlot Italia for Palestina under det første korstoget, men begge ble fengslet i 1097 av uspesifiserte årsaker. Faren deres ble tvunget til å skaffe penger for å betale løsepengen for løslatelse i mai 1099. [2] Senere i 1099 adopterte Matilda fra Toscana formelt Guidos sønn, Guido, og ga ham tittelen marquis. I 1102 hadde Guido den yngre tiltrådt stillingen som familieoverhode. I 1109 lånte han sin støtte til byen Faenza i deres opprør mot Etelberto, biskop av Ravenna, som tradisjonelt hadde rett til å utnevne en grev til byen. [2] Guidos hjelp førte til at Etelberto løftet beleiringen av byen.

Nå hadde den nærliggende byen Firenze økt enormt i størrelse og innflytelse som følge av konflikten i Toscana under Investiture Controversy. [2] Byen underordnet seg ikke regjeringen til Matildas etterfølger, Rabodo, markisen i Toscana, og favoriserte i stedet selvstyre som en republikk. Den voksende makten i Firenze truet direkte med Guidi -tellingenes makt i utkanten av byen og i de omkringliggende landlige områdene. [2]

Medlemmer av Guidi -familien ble politiske ledere og sorenskriver i bygdesamfunnene de hersket over, mens andre ble militære sjefer i konfliktene i Sentral -Italia. [5] Imidlertid er det ingen holdepunkter for at noen i Guidi -familien ble profesjonelle condottiere.

På begynnelsen av det trettende århundre spredte herredskapene til Guidi -grevene Apenninene mellom Romagna og Toscana, fra Mugello til Casentino, og andre herredømme som var underlagt dem lå i nedre Valdarno vest for Firenze (Empoli og andre castellanies), øvre Valdarno , Pratomagno og Val d'Ambra. [5]

På midten av trettende århundre så fiendtlighet rettet mot Guidi -familien fra Republikken Firenze, som så på landlige herredømme i Guidi som en blokk for florentinske ambisjoner om regionalt hegemoni. [5]

På det fjortende århundre hadde makten til de landlige Guidi -herredømmene gradvis blitt erodert av florentinerne. Den siste bastionen av Guidi -makten i Sentral -Italia, Poppi -slottet, ble overgitt til Firenze i 1440. [5] [6] [7]


Flere biter til blyant i en skummel reiserute i Toscana

Denne uken, gitt årstid, har vi snakket om den skummelste siden av Toscana. Selv om høsten er en fantastisk tid for å planlegge en tur til Toscana, ettersom sesongmat, vakkert fargerikt landskap og mindre folkemengder er fristende, er det også en rik historie som har resultert i en ganske stor spøkelsesbefolkning som gjør det enda mer spennende som et feriemål i oktober. Les videre for å lære mer om Toscanas skumleste steder. hvis du tør.

3. Poppi Castle's Ghastly Tales of Murder And Ghosts

Poppi Castle er en vakker bygning som ligger i Casentino, en dal kjent for natur, kunst og historie, og mat og vinturisme, men under det sjarmerende eksteriøret er en blodig historie.

En av de tidligere beboerne, og den mest beryktede, var en ung kvinne ved navn Matilda, som var den vakreste kvinnen i området på den tiden og ble tvunget til ekteskap med en gammel og mektig mann fra Guidi -familien, den herskende familien kl. tiden. Matilda, sterkt misfornøyd med denne hendelsen og sjalu på friheten som vanlige folk hadde, begynte å sende inn kvalifiserte unge ungkarer, under dekke av å få dem til å reparere eller underholde henne. Hun ville deretter velge en av disse mennene til å komme til kammeret hennes, og deretter neste dag ville hun kvitte seg med bevisene for sine uoverensstemmelser ved å skyve dem gjennom en falldør inn i et hull fylt med barberblad og knust glass.

Til slutt begynte antallet savnede unge menn å bli lagt merke til, og bymenn stormet slottet, fanget Matilda i et tårn på slottet, murer opp døren og lot henne sulte i hjel. Som du kan forestille deg, er det mange historier om hjemsøkelser, og for de som er interessert i de fryktelige og grusomme tingene i livet, er det et must å finne en feriebolig i Casentino og komme for å utforske denne fascinerende perlen.

4. The Ghost of Palazzo Vecchio

Det er mange grunner til å finne en luksusvilla i Firenze og tilbringe tid i denne fantastiske byen. En skummel grunn er spøkelset som hjemsøker Palazzo Vecchio. Det sies at det faktisk er mange spøkelser i Palazzo Vecchio, men den mest berømte er Baldaccio d'Anghiari, en middelaldersk adelsmann og modig kriger som ble forrådt, feilaktig anklaget for forræderi og drept inne i Palazzo Vecchio i 1441. Siden da har han hjemsøkt denne bygningen i Firenze, som fremstår som en sint mann, og har blitt oppdaget mange ganger. Den mest berømte observasjonen av Baldaccio skjedde i 2001 da et ungt par som tok bilder utenfor Palazzo Vecchio la merke til det gjennomsiktige ansiktet til en sint, spøkelsesaktig mann som stirret ut av vinduet på bygningen. Eksperter erklærte det for å være ekte, men debatt om hva slags effekt som kan ha forårsaket det, eller om det faktisk var et spøkelse, fortsetter.

Det er enda flere fascinerende og skumle steder å utforske rundt i Toscana, så sørg for å fortsette til resten av denne serien.


Innhold

Hver episode inneholder dramatiske rekreasjoner med skuespillere som forteller de mest mystiske, hemmelige og merkelige historiene og legendene fra slottets historie. Disse historiene har skjedd enten inne i festningsverkene eller i nærheten av de mange berømte og til og med beryktede slottene i Europa og Amerika.

Årstid Episoder Opprinnelig sendt Utgivelsesdato for DVD og Blu-ray
Sesongpremiere Sesongfinale Region 1 Region 2 Region 4
1 5 [1] 19. januar 2014 23. februar 2014 Ikke tilgjengelig Ikke tilgjengelig Ikke tilgjengelig
2 13 2. januar 2015 27. mars 2015 Ikke tilgjengelig Ikke tilgjengelig Ikke tilgjengelig
3 13 8. januar 2016 31. mars 2016 Ikke tilgjengelig Ikke tilgjengelig Ikke tilgjengelig

Sesong 1 (2014) Rediger

Ep. # Tittel Original luftdato
1.1"Real Frankenstein Mummy Curse Man in the Iron Mask [2]"19. januar 2014 (2014-01-19)
I seriepremieren begynner en skandaløs affære mellom en britisk regjeringsminister, en showgirl og en sovjetisk spion på Cliveden House i Taplow, England. Frankenstein slott, nå i ruiner på en steinete bakketopp i Darmstadt, Tyskland, er hjemmet til forskeren Johann Konrad Dippel som utførte eksperimenter for å vekke de døde tilbake og var inspirasjonen bak Mary Shelleys Frankenstein. Highclere Castle i Hampshire, en av de mest berømte herregården i England, har egyptiske skatter når den femte jarlen til Caranrvon etter husets eier blir forbannet når han avdekker den lenge begravde graven til Tutankhamun. Legenden om mannen i jernmasken fengselssted avsløres ved det forutinntatte Fort Royal på øya Sle Sainte-Marguerite, bortsett fra Lérins-øyene, en halv kilometer fra Frankrikes kyst utenfor Cannes. Et besøk på Hammond Castle i Gloucester, Massachusetts, hvor oppfinneren John Hays Hammond Jr. og det psykiske mediet Eileen Garrett eksperimenterte med et Faraday Cage som beviste om ESP eksisterer.
1.2"Kronjuveler Heist Marquis de Sade Enigma fra Kaspar Hauser"26. januar 2014 (2014-01-26)
Tower of London i London, England, bygget i 1066 som en kongelig residens er der kronjuvelene er trygt oppbevart inntil et forsøk av den irske opprøreren Thomas Blood som prøvde å stjele regaliene i 1671. Morris-Jumel Mansion i New York City er fremdeles hjemmet til spøkelsen til Eliza Jumel som antas å ha latt sin vinhandelmann dø ved å blø i hjel i hjemmet deres i 1832. Château de Miolans, en ugjennomtrengelig bastion i St. Pierre d'Albigny i Sør -Frankrike er der den franske aristokraten vendte forfatteren Marquis de Sade ble fengslet etter at et parti uten kontroll i 1772 ga ham et drapsforsøk. Karlsruhe-palasset i Karlsruhe, Tyskland som ble reist i 1706, holdt en hundre år gammel hemmelighet om en mystisk tenåringsgutt, Kaspar Hauser som ble funnet å hevde å ha tilbrakt livet sitt innelåst i et vindusfritt rom der. Med sin lidenskap for raske biler baner William Vanderbilt's idé om å bygge en racerbane mens han var i sitt herskapshus i spansk stil, Eagle's Nest i Centerport, New York vei for Amerikas moderne tid. Et komplott for å drepe den protestantiske dronning Elizabeth I klekkes av katolske konspiratorer i de hemmelige gangene til Thrumpton Hall, en herregård fra 1500-tallet i Nottinghamshire, England.
1.3"Hound of the Baskervilles Lord Gordon-Gordon Escape from Colditz"9. februar 2014 (2014-02-09)
Cromer Hall, en britisk herregård på en myr inspirerte Sir Arthur Conan Doyle til å skrive sin klassiske roman, Baskervilles hund av hans Sherlock Holmes -historier. Når den skotske aristokraten Lord Gordon-Gordon får andel i Erie Railroad, resulterer det i en skandale fra et opplegg av røverbaron Jay Gould fra Wall Street, og eier av et slott kjent som Lyndhurst i Tarrytown, New York. Et rømningsforsøk av den britiske kapteinen Pat Reid utspiller seg inne i steinmurene på Colditz Castle i Colditz, Tyskland, som fungerte som en nazistisk drevet krigsleir under andre verdenskrig. Berkeley Castle i Berkeley Springs, West Virginia ble bygget av oberst Samuel Taylor Suit for sin unge brud, som etter hans død ble antatt å være involvert i hennes elskendes død. I 1885 blir historien til Tour Magdala, et avsidesliggende citadell i middelalderlandsbyen Rennes-le-Château, en skattejegers drøm når en prest, Bérenger Saunière finner pergament fra Blanche av Castilias skjulte gull fra 800-tallet. Marble House, et nyklassisk herskapshus i Newport, Rhode Island, satte scenen for en berømt mor-datter-konflikt i Gilded Age da sosialklatreren Alva Erskine Smith låser datteren hennes på rommet hennes når hun nekter et arrangert ekteskap.
1.4"The Tichborne Claimant Washington Resurrection Loch Ness Hoax"16. februar 2014 (2014-02-16)
Castello di Malaspina i Fosdinovo, Italia blir en grav for Bianca Malaspina, en albinojente som trosset sine edle foreldre da hun ble forelsket i en stabil gutt, og fikk dem til å mure henne levende i fangehullet. Upton House i Poole, England var en del av en arvskonflikt da en mann fra Wagga Wagga, Australia, hevdet å være den engelske aristokraten Roger Tichborne, familiens eneste arving som druknet i et forlis 10 år tidligere. Fredag ​​den 13. desember 1799 blir George Washington syk, og etter at leger prøver å behandle ham med blodutslipp, dør han dagen etter i sitt hjem, Mount Vernon i Mount Vernon, Virginia, men Dr. William Thornton foreslår imidlertid en radikal prosedyre for å gjenopplive ham. Når den franske keiseren Napoleon Bonaparte blir forvist på den lille øya Elba, 11 kilometer utenfor Italias kyst, blir hans planer om å flykte født i hans herregård fra 1600 -tallet, Villa dei Mulini. Observasjoner av Loch Ness -monsteret dateres tilbake til det 6. århundre da irsk misjonær Saint Columba oppdaget skapningen på Loch Ness nær Urquhart Castle i Inverness, Skottland. Washington Times-Herald eieren, Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson gjør Mount Airy Mansion i Upper Marlboro, Maryland til sitt hjem etter å ha flyktet fra sin kvinnelige mann.
1.5"The Black Dinner Voynich Manuscript Seward Attack"23. februar 2014 (2014-02-23)
I 1440 hevner guttekongen, James II, den opprørske jarlen av Douglas for å ha ønsket seg tronen ved å invitere ham til en bankett på Edinburgh Castle i Edinburgh, Skottland, senere kjent som "Black Dinner", og inspirerte en av de mest brutale scener i Game of Thrones. Når en velstående enke etter jernbanemillionær Mark Hopkins blir syk og dør etter å ha giftet seg med Edward Searles, designeren av Searles Castle i Great Barrington, Massachusetts, mener samfunnet at han forgiftet henne for penger. Gradara slott i Gradara, Italia var sentrum for to krigførende familier - Malatestas og Polentas - som giftet seg med sin vakre datter Francesca med den stygge Giovanni Malatesta og startet en tragisk kjærlighetshistorie mellom henne og broren, Paolo. Danesfield House i Marlow, England var hovedkvarteret for den britiske CIU der RAF-offiser Constance Babington Smith oppdaget et luftfotografi av nazistiske V-1-er som forårsaket Operation Crossbow under [andre verdenskrig. Etter et forsøk på livet av konspirator Lewis Powell i Lincoln -attentatskonspirasjonen, pensjonerer utenriksminister William Seward seg i sitt elskede hjem, i dag kalt Seward House Museum i Auburn, New York. Villa Mondragone i Roma, Italia er stedet der mysteriet i Voynich -manuskriptet begynte da antikkbokhandleren Wilfrid Voynich oppdaget en gammel bok skrevet i en kryptisk kryptering i 1912.

Sesong 2 (2015) Rediger

Merk: Episoder i denne sesongen ble sendt under det endrede tittelnavnet Mysterier på slottet.


Innhold

Åpningslinjene for første verdenskrigs dikt "In Flanders Fields" refererer til valmuer som vokser blant gravene til krigsofre i en region i Belgia. Diktet er skrevet fra de falne soldatenes synspunkt, og i det siste verset oppfordrer soldatene de levende til å fortsette konflikten. [6] Diktet ble skrevet av den kanadiske legen John McCrae 3. mai 1915 etter å ha vært vitne til døden til sin venn og medsoldat dagen før. Diktet ble første gang publisert 8. desember 1915 i det London-baserte magasinet Punch.

Moina Michael, som hadde tatt permisjon fra professoratet sitt ved University of Georgia for å være frivillig arbeider for American YMCA Overseas War Secretaries Organization, ble inspirert av diktet. She published a poem of her own called "We Shall Keep the Faith" in 1918. [7] In tribute to McCrae's poem, she vowed to always wear a red poppy as a symbol of remembrance for those who fought in and assisted with the war. [8] At a November 1918 YMCA Overseas War Secretaries' conference, she appeared with a silk poppy pinned to her coat and distributed twenty-five more poppies to attendees. She then campaigned to have the poppy adopted as a national symbol of remembrance.

At its conference in 1920, the National American Legion adopted the poppy as their official symbol of remembrance. [8] Frenchwoman Madame Guérin [1] was invited to address American Legion delegates at their 1920 Cleveland Convention about 'Inter-Allied Poppy Day.' After the convention, the American Legion too adopted the poppy as its memorial flower and committed to support Madame Guérin in her planned U.S. Poppy Day. It was also following this event that the American Legion christened Madame Guérin as "The Poppy Lady from France." Madame Guérin successfully organized the U.S.'s first nationwide Poppy Day during the week before Memorial Day in May 1921 using silk poppies made by the widows and children of the devastated regions of France. [1]

When the American Legion stopped using the poppy symbol in favor of the daisy, Veterans of Foreign Wars' members supported Madame Guérin instead. Using French-made poppies purchased through her, the V.F.W. organized the first veterans' Poppy Day Drive in the US, for the 1922 Memorial Day. [1] In 1924, the Veterans of Foreign Wars patented the Buddy Poppy. [9]

Madame Guérin's ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ idea was also adopted by military veterans' groups in parts of the British Empire. After the 1921 Memorial Day in the US, Madame Guérin traveled to Canada. After she addressed the Great War Veteran Association on 4 July, the group also adopted the poppy emblem as well as ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ concept. They were the first veterans of the British Empire (predecessor of the Commonwealth of Nations) to do so. [1]

Madame Guérin sent Colonel Moffat (ex-American Red Cross) to Australia and New Zealand (and probably South Africa) afterwards as her representative. She then traveled to Great Britain, where she informed Field Marshal Douglas Haig and the Royal British Legion about her idea. Because it was an underfunded organization, Madame Guérin paid for the British remembrance poppies herself and the British Legion reimbursed her after the first British Remembrance Day Poppy Day on 11 November 1921. [1]

James Fox notes that all of the countries which adopted the Remembrance Poppy were victors of World War I. [6]

An early reference to war and poppies in Flanders is found in the book The Scottish Soldiers of Fortune by James Grant. The Scots in Holland and Flanders: At Neerwinden, in 1693, the brigade again suffered heavy loss, and William was compelled again to give way before the white-coated infantry of France with the loss of 10,000 men. "During many months after," wrote the Earl of Perth to his sister (as quoted by Macaulay), "the ground was strewn with skulls and bones of horses and men, and with fragments of hats, shoes, saddles, and holsters. The next summer the soil, fertilised by 20,000 corpses, broke forth into millions of scarlet poppies." [10]

Remembrance poppies are mostly used in the Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, all of which are realms of the Commonwealth of Nations—to commemorate the servicemen and women killed in conflict. They are used to a much lesser extent in the United States.

Australia Edit

In Australia, the Flanders Poppy (remembrance poppies) has been used since 1921 to commemorate Australian soldiers who died in war. On Remembrance Day (11 November) and Anzac Day (25 April) they are laid at war memorials and are sold by the Returned and Services League of Australia (RSL) to raise funds. [11] Military folklore indicates that the vivid red of the poppies symbolize their comrades' blood soaking into the battleground. [12]

Canada Rediger

In Canada, the poppy is the official symbol of remembrance. It was adopted as such in 1921 and it is to be worn during the two weeks leading up to 11 November. The Royal Canadian Legion, which has trademarked the image, [13] suggests that poppies be worn on the left lapel, or as near the heart as possible. [14]

Until 1996, poppies were made by disabled veterans in Canada, but they have since been made by a private contractor. [15] The Canadian poppies consist of two pieces of molded plastic covered with flocking with a pin for fastening to clothing. The poppies were initially made with a black centre. From 1980 to 2002, the centres were changed to green. Current designs are black only this change confused those unfamiliar with the original design. [16] In 2007, poppy stickers were introduced for children, the elderly, and healthcare and food industry workers. [17]

Canada also issues a cast metal "Canada Remembers" pin featuring a gold maple leaf and two poppies, one representing the fallen and the other representing those who remained on the home front. [18]

Following the 2000 installation of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the National War Memorial in Ottawa, where the national Remembrance Service is held, a new tradition began of attendees laying their poppies on the tomb at the end of the service. While not part of the official program, the act has become widely practiced elsewhere in the country, with others leaving cut flowers, photographs, or letters as well.

Since introduction to Canada in 1949, the Remembrance Poppy and Armistice Day commemorations have largely displaced Newfoundland's own commemorative floral emblem, the forget-me-not, as well as the province's Memorial Day held on 1 July. Although in recent years the forget-me-not has had somewhat of a resurgence in Newfoundland's military commemorations, [19] [20] the Remembrance Poppy remains more common.

New Zealand Rediger

In New Zealand, Remembrance Poppies are most often worn on Anzac Day (April 25) to commemorate New Zealand soldiers who died in war. They are also worn on Remembrance Day, and are sold by the Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association (RSA) to raise funds. The RSA planned to hold its first Poppy Day appeal around the time of Armistice Day 1921, as other countries were doing, but the ship carrying the poppies from France arrived in New Zealand too late. The association therefore waited until Anzac Day 1922. This first Poppy Day appeal was a success. Most of the money raised went to needy soldiers and their families, while the rest went to the French Children's League to help relieve suffering in war-ravaged areas of northern France.

The popularity of Poppy Day grew and there were record collections during World War II. By 1945, 750,000 poppies were distributed nationwide, an amount equal to half the country's population. [21]

Storbritannia Rediger

In the United Kingdom, Remembrance Poppies are sold by The Royal British Legion (RBL). This is a charity providing financial, social, political, and emotional support to those who have served or who are currently serving in the British Armed Forces and their dependents. They are sold on the streets by volunteers in the weeks before Remembrance Day. The Remembrance Poppy is the trademark of The Royal British Legion. [22] [23] The RBL states, "The red poppy is our registered mark and its only lawful use is to raise funds for the Poppy Appeal," [24] its yearly fundraising drive in the weeks before Remembrance Day. The organization says these poppies are "worn to commemorate the sacrifices of our Armed Forces and to show support to those still serving today." [25] Other poppy merchandise is sold throughout the year as part of ongoing fundraising. [26]

In England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the poppies typically have two red paper petals mounted on a green plastic stem with a single green paper leaf and a prominent black plastic central boss. The stem has an additional branch used as a pin to anchor the poppy in the lapel or buttonhole. In Scotland, the poppies are curled and have four petals with no leaf. The yearly sale of poppies is a major source of income for the RBL in the UK. The poppy has no fixed price it is sold for a donation or the price may be suggested by the seller. The black plastic centre of the poppy was marked "Haig Fund" until 1994 but is now marked "Poppy Appeal." [27] A team of about 50 people—primarily disabled former British military personnel—work year round to make millions of poppies at the Poppy Factory in Richmond. [28] Scottish poppies are made in the Lady Haig's Poppy Factory in Edinburgh.

For years after World War I, poppies were worn only on Remembrance Day. [29] Today the RBL's "Poppy Appeal" has a higher profile than other charity appeals in the UK. [29] The pins are widespread from late October until mid-November every year and are worn by the general public, politicians, the Royal Family and other public figures. It has become common to see large poppies on buses, tube trains and airplanes, as well as on lampposts, billboards, public buildings, and landmarks. Many newspapers and magazines show a poppy on their cover page, and some social network users add poppies to their avatars. [ trenger Kilde ] Each year, an official Poppy Appeal single has been released. [30] Remembrance Poppy sellers are found on streets and at numerous public events such as concerts, fairs, marathons and competitions. Other awareness raising events have initiated. For example, in 2011, a Second World War aeroplane dropped 6,000 poppies over the town of Yeovil in Somerset. [31] In 2014, Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red, a public art installation was created in the dry moat of the Tower of London by covering it with 888,246 ceramic poppies – one for each soldier of the British Empire killed in World War I.

There has been growing controversy over the Poppy Appeal. Some—including British Army veterans—have argued that the Poppy Appeal has become excessive, and that it is being used to marshal support for British military activities and that poppy wearing has become compulsory for public figures. [5] [32] Channel 4 newsreader Jon Snow described it as "poppy fascism". [33] Columnist Dan O'Neill wrote that "presenters and politicians seem to compete in a race to be first – poppies start sprouting in mid-October while the absence of a poppy is interpreted as absence of concern for the war dead, almost as an unpatriotic act of treachery." [34] Likewise, Jonathan Bartley of the religious think-tank Ekklesia said "Public figures in Britain are urged, indeed in many cases, required, to wear . the red poppy, almost as an article of faith. There is a political correctness about the red poppy." [35] Journalist Robert Fisk complained that the poppy has become a seasonal "fashion accessory" and that people were "ostentatiously wearing a poppy for social or work-related reasons, to look patriotic when it suited them." [36] Some far-right groups have used the poppy as a symbol of militant British nationalism, while some Muslims have begun to reject it as a symbol of Western imperialism. [6]

In 1997 and again in 2000 the Royal British Legion registered the Poppy under Intellectual Property Rights [37] and Trade Mark. [38]

Northern Ireland Edit

The Royal British Legion also holds a yearly poppy appeal in Northern Ireland and in 2009 raised more than £1m. [39] The wearing of poppies in Northern Ireland is controversial. [6] It is seen by many as a political symbol [6] [40] and a symbol of Britishness, [6] [41] [42] representing support for the British Army. [40] The poppy has long been the preserve of the unionist/loyalist community. [6] [41] Loyalist paramilitaries (such as the UVF and UDA) have also used poppies to commemorate their own members who were killed in The Troubles. [43]

Most Irish nationalists/republicans, and Irish Catholics, choose not to wear poppies [40] they regard the Poppy Appeal as supporting soldiers who killed Irish civilians (for example on Bloody Sunday) and who colluded with illegal loyalist paramilitaries (for example the Glenanne gang) during The Troubles. [6] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] Irish nationalist groups, and victims' groups, have urged the BBC to end its policy that all presenters must wear poppies. They argue that it breaches impartiality and points out that political symbols are banned in workplaces in Northern Ireland. They also say that the BBC, as a publicly funded body, should broadly reflect the whole community. [46] [49] Likewise, the director of Relatives for Justice has condemned the wearing of poppies by police officers in Catholic neighbourhoods, calling it "repugnant and offensive to the vast majority of people within our community, given the role of the British Army". [45] In the Irish Independent, it was claimed that "substantial amounts" of money raised from selling poppies are used "to build monuments to insane or inane generals or build old boys' clubs for the war elite". [47] On Remembrance Day 2010 the SDLP’s Margaret Ritchie was the first leader of a nationalist party to wear one. [50]

Republic of Ireland Edit

During World War I, all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom and about 200,000 Irishmen fought in the British Army (see Ireland and World War I). Furthermore some 70,000 citizens of the then independent state of Ireland served in the British armed services during World War II. [51]

Republic of Ireland citizens continue to enlist to this day. [52] [53] [54] The RBL has a branch in the Republic and holds a yearly Poppy Appeal and wreath-laying ceremony at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, which the President of Ireland has attended. [55]

The Republic has its own National Day of Commemoration for all Irish people who died in war. As in other non-Commonwealth countries, poppies are not often worn and are not part of the main commemorations. [56] [57] This is largely a consequence of the historic deployment of British forces against Irish independence during the War of Independence. More recent factors are the controversies involving British armed forces that arose during the Troubles.

In 2017, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar wore a "shamrock poppy" in the Dáil, the first Taoiseach to do so. [58]

Elsewhere Edit

In the United States, the Veterans of Foreign Wars conducted the first nationwide distribution of remembrance poppies before Memorial Day in 1922. [59] Today, the American Legion Auxiliary distributes crepe-paper poppies in exchange for donations around Memorial Day and Veterans Day. [60] [61] [62]

In Hong Kong—which was formerly a British colony—the poppy is worn by some participants on Remembrance Sunday each year. [63] [64] It is not generally worn by the public, although The Royal British Legion's Hong Kong and China Branch sells poppies to the public in a few places in Hong Kong only. [65]

Since 2014, Ukrainians have worn the poppy as a symbol of the Victory over Nazism and commemoration of the victims of World War II. It has largely replaced the Ribbon of Saint George, which became associated with pro-Russian separatists and Russian military aggression. A poppy logo was designed by Serhiy Mishakin and contains the text: "1939-1945 Never Again". [66]

In parts of Pakistan, the 'Great War Company' hold a private ceremony each 11 November where red poppies are worn, by descendants of World War I veterans from the old British Indian Army. [67]

In Albania, government representatives, including Prime Minister Edi Rama, wore the Remembrance Poppy during the commemoration ceremonies for the 70th Anniversary of the Liberation of Albania. [68]

White poppies Edit

Some people choose to wear white poppies as an alternative to the red poppy. The white poppy and white poppy wreaths were introduced by Britain's Co-operative Women's Guild in 1933. [69] Today, white poppies are sold by Peace Pledge Union or may be home-made. [27] The white poppy may be worn alone or alongside the red poppy. According to the Peace Pledge Union, it symbolises remembrance of all casualties of war including civilian casualties, and non-British casualties, to stand for peace, and not to glamorise war. [70] Some women in the 1930s lost their jobs for wearing white poppies, and today the controversy remains where white poppies are criticised for detracting from the meaning and the funds of the red poppy. [71]

Purple poppies Edit

To commemorate animal victims of war, Animal Aid in Britain has issued a purple remembrance poppy, which can be worn alongside the traditional red one, as a reminder that both humans and animals have been – and continue to be – victims of war. [72] [73] Recently, the purple poppy was replaced by a purple paw symbol that can be worn all year round. This was because people saw the poppy as implying animals had given their lives as heroes in the service of human beings. Animal Aid regards animals of having their lives taken by the abuse of humans in war, not given by the animals as could be the case with people who have the capacity to decide for themselves. [74]

Black poppies Edit

On Remembrance Sunday 1999, a Merseyside group protesting against sanctions and war on Iraq laid a wreath of black poppies on the cenotaph in Liverpool. [75] In 2014 the black poppy was embraced as an anti-war symbol by the Stop the War Coalition which reported 'anti militarists' in Glasgow distributing 16,000 black poppies in memory of World War I conscientious objectors. [76]

Khadi poppies Edit

Introduced in the 2018 Centenary year by Jitesh Gadhia and The Royal British Legion, the khadi poppy is intended to represent specific gratitude for the contribution of 1.5 million people from undivided India, as well as Commonwealth nations more generally, to the First World War. These poppies are identical to the Legion red poppy except the petals are made of khadi, a spun cotton cloth popularised by Mahatma Gandhi on his spinning wheel. [77] Jitesh Gadhia has stated that "the khadi poppy is a hugely symbolic and highly appropriate gesture to recognise the outsized contribution of Indian soldiers during WWI." [78] On the poppy's role to reach out to ethnic minority communities whose ancestors participated in the war effort, he said that "our identity is our destiny – and so the current generation of Asians should know that their fathers and grandfathers didn't just come to Britain as immigrants. Our ancestors fought for this country and for freedom and democracy – even though they lived in a colony at the time. British Asians should be proud of the role that their forebears played in shaping the destiny of the world." [ trenger Kilde ]

It has been worn by British Prime Minister Theresa May, and by cricketers Joe Root and Virat Kohli before a test match between England and India in September 2018. [79] [80]

Rainbow poppies Edit

In 2019, a listing appeared on eBay in the United Kingdom selling rainbow poppies.

The Royal British Legion confirmed that the Rainbow Poppy was not an officially endorsed product. While the eBay listing stated that the money raised by sales of the rainbow poppy would "go towards helping charity", it was not clear which charities would benefit from sales. [81] This led to widespread criticism online, with some accusing the seller of "hijacking" the poppy appeal. Brexit Party candidate Nicholas Goulding argued the poppy was "not for political controversy". Supporters of the poppy responded by tweeting Goulding examples of famous LGBTQ people who had played a significant role in previous conflicts, such as Alan Turing. [82]

The listing was subsequently removed by the original user, due to negative feedback. [83]

In 1993, The Royal British Legion complained that Cannon Fodder, a video game with an anti-war message, had planned to use a poppy on its cover. The Legion, along with some politicians, called it "offensive to millions" and "monstrous". The publisher was forced to change the cover before the game was released.

In 2010 a group of British Army veterans issued an open letter complaining that the Poppy Appeal had become excessive and garish, that it was being used to marshal support behind British military campaigns, and that people were being pressured into wearing poppies. [5] In 2014, the group protested by holding an alternative remembrance service: they walked to The Cenotaph under the banner "Never Again" with a wreath of white poppies to acknowledge civilians killed in war. Their tops bore the message "War is Organised Murder", a quote from Harry Patch, the last survivor of World War I. [84] [85]

A 2010 Remembrance Day ceremony in London was disrupted by members of the Muslims Against Crusades group, who were protesting against the British Army presence in Afghanistan and Iraq. They burnt large poppies and chanted "British soldiers burn in hell" during the two-minute silence. Two of the men were arrested and charged for threatening behavior. One was convicted and fined £50. [86] The same group planned to hold another protest in 2011, but was banned by the Home Secretary the day before the planned protest. [87] In 2014, a campaign was begun to encourage Muslim women to wear poppy hijabs. Some criticised it as a "shrouded loyalty test" which implied that Muslims needed to prove their loyalty to Britain. [88] [89] [90]

In November 2011 people were arrested in Northern Ireland after a picture of two youths burning a poppy was posted on Facebook. The picture was reported to police by a member of the RBL. [91] The following year, a young Canterbury man was arrested for allegedly posting a picture of a burning poppy on Facebook, on suspicion of an offence under the Malicious Communications Act. [92]

British Prime Minister David Cameron rejected a request from Chinese officials to remove his poppy during his visit to Beijing on Remembrance Day in 2010. The poppy was deemed offensive because it was mistakenly assumed to be connected with First and Second Opium Wars of the 19th century. [93]

In 2012 there was controversy when The Northern Whig public house in Belfast refused entry to a man wearing a remembrance poppy. [94] Although the owners apologised, the customer took the matter to court, supported by the Equality Commission for Northern Ireland (ECNI). [95] The case was significant for the decision supporting the view of the ECNI that "The poppy, although not directly linked to a specific religious belief or political opinion, would historically have been associated to a greater extent with the Protestant or unionist community in Northern Ireland". [96]

In the media Edit

In the British media, public figures have been attacked for not wearing poppies. British journalist and newsreader Charlene White has faced racist and sexist abuse for not wearing a poppy on-screen. She explained "I prefer to be neutral and impartial on screen so that one of those charities doesn't feel less favoured than another". [97] Newsreader Jon Snow does not wear a poppy on-screen for similar reasons. He too was criticised and he condemned what he saw as "poppy fascism". [98] Well-known war-time journalist Robert Fisk published in November 2011 a personal account about the shifting nature of wearing a poppy, titled "Do those who flaunt the poppy on their lapels know that they mock the war dead?". [99] While all newsreaders in the UK are expected to wear the remembrance poppy, those on the BBC's international news service are told not to. The BBC say this is because the symbol is not widely recognised overseas. The Royal British Legion condemned this, insisting that the poppy is the "international symbol of remembrance". [100]

Fabrizio De André, an Italian songwriter known for his sympathies towards anarchism, left-libertarianism and pacifism, featured red poppies in his song, 'Piero's war', about the death of a soldier, inspired the poem 'Le Dormeur du val' of Arthur Rimbaud: 'You sleep buried in a field of wheat it is neither the rose nor the tulip who watch over you from the shadow of ditches, but it is a thousand red poppies'.

In a November 2020 episode of Jeremy Vine, activist Femi Oluwole questioned why BBC presenters were still permitted to wear poppies, following new impartiality guidance warning against "virtue signalling, no matter how worthy the cause", which had previously prevented staff from expressing support for Black Lives Matter and LGBT rights. [101]

In sport Edit

In the run-up to Remembrance Day, it has become common for UK football teams to play with artificial poppies sewn to their shirts, at the request of the Royal British Legion. This has caused some controversy.

At a Celtic v Aberdeen match in November 2010, a group of Celtic supporters, called the Green Brigade, unfurled a large banner in protest at the team wearing poppies. In a statement, it said: "Our group and many within the Celtic support do not recognise the British Armed Forces as heroes, nor their role in many conflicts as one worthy of our remembrance". It gave Operation Banner (Northern Ireland), the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War as examples. [102]

Northern Irish–born footballer James McClean, who has played for several English teams, has received death threats and abuse since 2012 for refusing to wear a poppy on his shirt during matches. [103] McClean said he does not wear one because the Poppy Appeal supports British soldiers who served in Northern Ireland, and believes it would disrespect those killed in his hometown on Bloody Sunday. [104]

In November 2011, it was proposed that the England football team should wear poppies on their shirts in a match against Spain. FIFA turned down the proposal their decision was attacked by Prince William. [105] FIFA subsequently allowed the English, Scottish and Welsh teams to wear poppies on black armbands. [106]

On 11 November 2017, the third day of the Women's Test match held at North Sydney Oval as part of the Women's Ashes 2017–18, both the Australian and the English team players wore poppies to mark 99 years since the end of World War I. [107]

During the 2018 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers, the England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland football teams were fined for displaying the poppy during matches. FIFA rules forbid the display of "political or religious symbols". [108] [109] [110] The decision was strongly criticised by Prime Minister Theresa May, and the Welsh and English football associations appealed against the fine, with the English Football Association threatening to bring the matter to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. [110] [111] [112]

In November 2018, Manchester United's Serbian midfielder Nemanja Matić refused to wear a poppy on his shirt for a match against Bournemouth. [113] After the match, Matić was castigated and got threats by a number of people via social networks for not respecting servicemen who have died in war. [114] Matić stated that he will not wear a poppy because his village of Vrelo was hit by the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. [113]

In ice hockey, players and coaches traditionally wear a poppy, with players often featuring a poppy decal on their helmets. Even outside Canada and the Commonwealth (especially in the United States), hockey clubs will often feature the poppy in November because of the sport's Canadian heritage and the typical presence of Canadian team members. [115]


Royal Scandals Through The Centuries

Some royal scandals resound through history, cropping up like mushrooms whenever the subject of kingly misbehavior is raised—Henry VIII throwing over his wife and his church for the nubile charms of Anne Boleyn, Edward VIII renouncing his throne for an American divorcée with hip bones that could cut glass. Then there are the famous scandals that are not actually scandals at all—Catherine the Great did not, in fact, have intercourse with a horse—and some that really ought to be better known. Her er noen.

The Queen of Denmark and the Royal Physician

Poor Caroline Matilda! As a teenaged British princess, she was married off sight unseen to King Christian VII of Denmark—a perfectly nice young man except for his violent temper and fits of madness. In spite of Caroline Matilda’s warm charm and natural beauty, the royal marriage deteriorated swiftly along with the king’s mental state. His bouts of insanity were treated by a German doctor named Johann Struensee whose influence stabilized the monarch’s erratic behavior. The doctor believed that an improved relationship with his wife would also help the king, and he encouraged Christian to behave more kindly towards the queen. Isolated and unhappy in Denmark and at the mercy of a factional and gossipy court, Caroline Matilda was grateful for the doctor’s help and just as susceptible as her husband to Struensee’s calm authority. The physician and the queen became lovers, and together they worked to enact liberal reforms in the king’s name with Struensee eventually acquiring enough power to issue more than a thousand cabinet orders. Furious at the reforms, a conservative cabal plotted to overthrow the lovers in the king’s name. Struensee was executed, and Caroline Matilda was divorced from her husband and separated from her beloved children—one of whom was most likely Struensee’s. Thanks to the intervention of her brother, King George III of England, she was sent into exile in Germany rather than imprisoned in Denmark. In her genteel captivity, she amused herself with a tiny theatre, books, and charitable endeavors before dying suddenly of scarlet fever in 1775. She was 23.

The Tour de Nesle Affair

In 1314, King Philip IV of France was feeling rather good about his dynasty. His daughter, Isabelle, was Queen of England, and his three sons were neatly married off to a trio of noblewomen who were related to one another and ready to produce the next generation of French princes. Queen Isabelle, eager to welcome her sisters-in-law to the family, made them each a present of distinctive and costly embroidered purses. To Isabelle’s surprise, during the next family reunion, she spotted the purses hanging from the belts of a pair of brothers, knights at her father’s court at a time when prowess at arms made rock stars out of men who knew how to handle a lance. Wise to what this royal regifting meant, Isabelle hurried off to tell her father, and the king promptly set spies to watch his daughters-in-law. Within weeks, the trio of princesses were caught in flagrante with their lovers at a decrepit old Parisian fortress called the Tour de Nesle. The lovers were tortured in ways that would make any character on Game of Thrones shudder and finally executed—which must have come as a bit of a relief after all the castrating and flaying and oil-boiling. The princesses were imprisoned underground in dank, filthy dungeons, with their heads shaved and their children disinherited. The king himself died shortly afterwards. Within a generation, King Philip’s dynasty was destroyed, and the French throne passed to a distant cousin. The disagreement over who ought to inherit the crown sparked the Hundred Years’ War between England and France, plunging much of Western Europe into armed conflict that would last for the better part of a century, and all because of a trio of misbehaving princesses. In a delicious twist, it is said that the wreckage of King Philip’s dynasty is due to a curse laid upon him by Jacques de Molay, the Grand Master of the Templars, burned to death on bogus charges of heresy and witchcraft on the king’s orders earlier in 1314.

The Duke of Cumberland’s Midnight Intruder

Queen Victoria’s uncles were notorious for their exploits and excesses—drinking, gambling, seductions, and secret marriages—but none was as reviled as the Duke of Cumberland. In an age when character was supposedly mirrored by appearance, his sinister scar and violent temper marked him in public opinion as deeply malevolent. He was the least popular of King George III’s sons, and his reputation was not improved by the rumor that he had raped more than one noblewoman and impregnated his own sister, Princess Sophia. His infamy was sealed on a dark spring night in 1810. In the early hours, he suddenly leapt out of bed, screaming for his servants that he had been attacked, struck violently in the head several times. Claiming to be suspicious that his valet, Joseph Sellis, had not responded to his shouts, he dispatched his staff to search for the man. They found Sellis’s door bolted from the inside. After forcing the lock, they discovered Sellis, tucked in bed and nearly decapitated from a slash of a straight razor. Cumberland claimed—and an inquest agreed—that the valet committed suicide, but most people believed Sellis had been attacked by Cumberland. The public speculated about motives for the attack, each more sensational than the last and culminating in the explanation that Sellis was slashed after fighting off the duke’s attempt to rape him. True or not, it was a sordid story that followed Cumberland for the rest of his life, and there were fears upon Victoria’s accession to the throne that her uncle, heir presumptive until she bore her own child, would murder her to gain the crown. Part of the outpouring of jubilation at the birth of Queen Victoria’s eldest child was no doubt due to the fact that the villainous Cumberland was no longer first in the line of succession and had moved to Germany, never to return. (In 1830, another verdict of suicide was returned with en annen member of Cumberland’s household was found with a slashed throat. Nothing was ever proven against the duke, but it seems fair to suggest he was at the very least deeply unlucky.)

The Affair of the Poisons

Witchcraft! Poison! Sex! This scandal has it ALL. During the reign of Louis XIV, poison was having a heyday, providing a tidy path to inheritance and influence, but it came as a tremendous shock when the news broke that black magic rituals were being employed by those closest to the king himself. The scandal began with the arrest and execution of the Marquise de Brinvilliers, a noblewoman who murdered her father and brothers after trying out her poisons on the poor patients of the local charity hospital. The sensational story sparked rumors of other such crimes. A suspected forger and murderer claimed to have evidence that poison was rife at the court of the Sun King, and investigations were begun. It was discovered that the king’s chief mistress, the Marquise de Montespan, was implicated as a favored client of Catherine Monvoison, a Parisian supplier of powders and potions intended to secure the king’s affections. There were whispers of sex rituals and rites involving dead infants, news that horrified Louis. Monvoison—whose name, quite delightfully, means “my neighbor”—was burned at the stake and hundreds of others were implicated. Many died as a result of torture or suicide during the investigation, 36 were executed, and even those who escaped punishment were left with ruined reputations and lives in tatters. Madame de Montespan, who allegedly allowed a satanic priest to say a Black Mass over her naked body in a love rite to bind the Louis to her forever, was the mother of several of the king’s beloved illegitimate children and therefore too close to the monarch to be arrested and tried for her possible crimes. Instead, she quietly retired to a convent and a solemn life of contemplation and penance.

Princess Sophia Dorothea of Celle and the Case of the Missing Count

Beautiful and charismatic, Sophia Dorothea, daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was betrothed to her first cousin, George, a man so revolting his own subjects referred to him as “Pig Snout.” But George was potentially heir to two thrones, and the duke agreed to the match, gambling on winning a crown for his enchanting daughter. Unfortunately, Sophia Dorothea did not see the value in the arrangement and promptly fainted upon learning of the betrothal in 1682. The marriage went rapidly downhill from there, with frequent loud scenes and violent arguments—the last ending with George throttling Sophia Dorothea until servants intervened to save her life. Little wonder that when the dashing and handsome Count von Königsmarck arrived from Sweden, the bored and restless Sophia Dorothea found him irresistible. Upon first arriving at court, he had dallied briefly with George’s mistress, Countess Platen, but he soon had eyes only for the princess, embarking upon a torrid affair that was as indiscreet as it was passionate. Together, the lovers plotted to run away and make a new life for themselves far beyond the reach of her unlovely and vindictive husband. To Sophia Dorothea’s despair, the very night Königsmarck was supposed to carry her off, he failed to keep the assignation, disappearing from court entirely. Courtiers whispered that Countess Platen allegedly took her revenge by having the count attacked before he could elope with the princess, but she was never charged and no evidence was ever produced, least of all a corpse. But there were new floorboards hastily laid in the gallery outside Sophia Dorothea’s bedchamber, and no one ever saw Königsmarck again…Enraged by the scandal, George divorced Sophia Dorothea, separated her from her children, and had her imprisoned in a tiny castle on a lake. He went on to become King George I of England, leaving his scorned wife behind.

Princess Charlotte of Prussia’s Burn Book

Kaiser Wilhelm was problematic from birth. Militant, bombastic, and rude, this eldest grandson of Queen Victoria eventually plunged Europe into World War I simply because he liked playing military games—but his younger sister was not much better. Wayward, willful, and frequently malicious, Charly was often admonished to behave better in letters from her grandmother but to no avail, and there is good reason to believe that she may have been at the center of an outrageous scandal in the heart of her brother’s court. The German imperial court was lavish and snobby and given to extravagant debauchery. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, courtiers were terrorized for four years by accusatory notes detailing their misdeeds—some complete with pornographic sketches. Duels were fought, lives lost, and reputations shredded as a result of the letters that spilled all of the juicy details—everything from mate-swapping to full orgies. One male court official—Kotze—was arrested for sending the letters but released when authorities determined they were the work of a woman. Suspicion immediately fell upon Princess Charly. Some believed she had written the notes others said her diary had been stolen and fallen into the wrong hands. There were even those who suggested Charly had hosted an evening of debauchery with the purpose of deliberately gathering blackmail material. In any event, the Kotze Affair remained a murky blot upon her reputation, the whispers following her until her death shortly after the first world war.

Marie Antoinette and the Dress That Shocked a Nation

The French queen’s most famous scandal is the affair of the diamond necklace, an outrageous fraud perpetrated by jewel thieves using her name, but a previous incident was perhaps even more damaging to the royal prestige. In 1783, Marie Antoinette was painted by the artist Élisabeth Vigée leBrun wearing a gaulle rather than formal court dress. A gaulle was a light, minimally structured gown of layers of cotton muslin with gently gathered sleeves, a rounded neck, and a wide, soft fabric sash—much more comfortable than the rigid, restrictive court attire—and suitable for the queen’s relaxed country pursuits at her private retreat on the grounds of Versailles. Unfortunately, the gaulle, for all its comfort and simplicity, resembled the chemise, a shift worn as an underlayer to protect expensive clothing from body odor and sweat. It might have been cool and practical and comfortable, but the choice of costume made it look like the Queen of France had been painted in her underwear. When the painting was displayed publicly, it was as deeply shocking to the French as if Queen Elizabeth II had been photographed in her Rigby and Peller corset. Not only was the queen shown stripped of the trappings of royalty, she was harshly criticized for not boosting the French luxury goods market by wearing costly domestic silks and trimmings. Cotton, associated with the slave trade and grown by the British in India and in the West Indies, was viewed as an English fabric, a deeply disloyal choice for a French queen. The uproar was immediate and deafening. The painting was swiftly taken down, but the damage had been done. Marie Antoinette was fair game for all manner of vicious attacks because she had permitted herself to be shown as human—and distinctly less than royal. The mystique of monarchy had been shattered once and for all, and within a decade, she would perish on the guillotine wearing another plain white cotton dress…Ironically, the gaulle became a fashionable garment for revolutionaries, signaling a rejection of the excesses of the nobility and a devotion to the principles of simplicity and authenticity.


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