Billy the Kid First Arrest

Billy the Kid First Arrest


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23. september 1875 ble Billy the Kid arrestert for første gang etter å ha stjålet en kurv med tøy. Han brøt senere ut av fengselet og streifet rundt i det amerikanske vesten, og til slutt fikk han et rykte som fredløs og morder og et rapblad som angivelig inkluderte 21 drap.

De eksakte detaljene om Billy the Kid's fødsel er ukjente, annet enn navnet hans, William Henry McCarty. Han ble sannsynligvis født en gang mellom 1859 og 1861, i Indiana eller New York. Som barn hadde han ikke noe forhold til sin far og flyttet rundt med familien, bosatt i Indiana, Kansas, Colorado og Silver City, New Mexico. Moren hans døde i 1874 og Billy the Kid - som gikk under en rekke navn gjennom hele livet, inkludert Kid Antrim og William Bonney - vendte seg til kriminalitet like etterpå.

SE: The Real Billy the Kid på HISTORY Vault

McCarty gjorde et opphold som en hestetyv i Arizona før han returnerte til New Mexico, hvor han koblet seg til en gjeng med pistolslingere og storfe -rustlere som var involvert i den beryktede Lincoln County -krigen mellom rivaliserende rancher og handelspartier i Lincoln County i 1878. Etterpå, Billy ungen, som hadde en slank bygning, fremtredende skjeve fortenner og en kjærlighet til å synge, gikk på lammet og fortsatte sin fredløses liv, stjal storfe og hester, spilte og drepte mennesker. Forbrytelsene hans ga ham en dusør på hodet, og han ble til slutt tatt til fange og tiltalt for å ha drept en lensmann under Lincoln County War. Billy the Kid ble dømt til å henge for sin forbrytelse; kort tid senere klarte han imidlertid nok en fengselsbrudd, og myrdet to varamedlemmer i prosessen. Billy the Kid's frihet var kort, da lensmann Pat Garrett tok igjen desperaten i Fort Sumner, New Mexico, 14. juli 1881 og skjøt ham dødelig.

Selv om livet hans var kort, vokste Billy the Kid -legenden etter hans død. I dag er han et kjent symbol på det gamle vesten, sammen med menn som Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday og Wyatt Earp, og historien hans har blitt mytologisert og romantisert i en rekke filmer, bøker, TV -programmer og sanger . Hvert år besøker turister byen Fort Sumner, som ligger omtrent 160 miles sørøst for Albuquerque, for å se Billy the Kid Museum og gravstedet.

LES MER: Hvordan døde Billy the Kid?


Regulatorene ble dannet av mange små rancheiere og cowboys i Lincoln, New Mexico -området. Mange av de som ble mest kjent som "regulatorer" hadde en lang historie med hverandre tidligere. William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid eller Henry McCarty, ville bli den mest kjente, hovedsakelig fordi nyhetskontoer knyttet navnet hans til alt regulatorene gjorde. Lincoln County -krigen førte ham til fronten, men flere av de andre regulatorene var faktisk drivkraften bak hendelsene, og hadde en historie med å drepe sammen før krigen.

Ab Saunders, Charlie Bowdre, Doc Scurlock, Frank Coe og George Coe hadde tidligere drept rustlere sammen. 18. juli 1876 hadde den gruppen stormet fengselet i Lincoln, fjernet hestetyven Jesus Largo og hengt ham. Ab Saunders og Frank Coe hadde sporet opp storfe rustler Nicos Meras, skutt og drept ham samme måned i Baca Canyon. Foreningen deres med McCarty begynte da våren 1876 flyttet Henry (på den tiden kjent som enten Henry Antrim eller William Bonney) til Lincoln County og begynte å jobbe for Doc Scurlock og Charlie Bowdre på ostefabrikken. Senere jobbet han en tid for rancher Henry Hooker, og deretter for Ab Saunders og Coes på ranchen deres. Da Lincoln County -krigen kom, var de viktigste kjernemedlemmene, referert til som "jernkledde", alle mer erfarne og nærmere å være faktiske "våpenmenn" enn McCarty.

Lincoln County -krigen begynte da en mannskap, deputert av sheriff William J. Brady, myrdet den unge engelskmannen John Henry Tunstall 18. februar 1878. Posen hadde tilsynelatende jaktet på Tunstall for å feste, dvs. ved lovlig myndighet, beslaglegge noen aksjer Tunstall og mennene hans kjørte fra Tunstalls ranch på Feliz -elven til Lincoln, men posses virkelige motivasjon var klar - eliminer John Tunstall som en økonomisk trussel mot forretningsmenn James Dolan og LG Murphy, som hadde sheriff Brady i sin kontroll. [1]

Tunstalls ranchhender og andre lokale borgere dannet en gruppe kjent som Regulators for å hevne drapet hans, og motvirke det de så på som et korrupt territorielt straffesystem som kontrolleres av allierte i Murphy, Dolan og selskap. Tilsynsmyndighetene innhentet sin lovlighet fra myndigheten til Justice of the Peace i byen Lincoln, John B. Wilson. [2] Peace of Justice Wilson utstedte warrants for arrestasjonene av John Tunstalls mordere, og utnevnte regulator Dick Brewer til en spesialkonstabel for å henrette warrants. I tillegg fikk regulator Robert Widenmann, som tidligere sikret seg en avtale som nestleder i USA, marskalk, tillatelse til å danne en sivil posse og arrestere de tiltalte. [3] [4]

Lincoln County War og regulatorene ville lansere Billy the Kid til evig berømmelse. Det er sannsynlig at i virkeligheten andre regulatorer, for eksempel Doc Scurlock, var nærmere å faktisk være "våpenmenn" enn Billy. Det er sannsynlig at i noen tilfeller ble Billy the Kid kreditert drap som faktisk ble utført av andre regulatorer. Ved tilsynsmyndighetenes ende, hadde alle drap begått av dem fått navnet sitt vedlagt, enten han var den faktiske skytteren eller ikke. Dette ville til slutt være skadelig for hans forsøk på amnesti.

Regulatorene ville gå gjennom tre forskjellige ledere, alle unntatt en ble drept. Selv om Billy the Kid ville oppnå berømmelse som medlem av regulatorene, ledet han dem aldri. Deres første leder var Richard "Dick" Brewer, senere drept av Buckshot Roberts og erstattet av Frank McNab, som ble drept av medlemmer av Seven Rivers Warriors. McNab ble erstattet av Regulators siste leder, Doc Scurlock.

William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid, gjorde aldri noe forsøk på å bli kjent, eller å være hovedemnet for nyhetsrapporter om hendelsene som fant sted under rekkeviddekrigen. Frank Coe kommenterte år senere, "Han presset aldri inn sine råd eller meninger, men han hadde et fantastisk sinnstilstedeværelse." [5]

  • 18. februar 1878, Tunstall ble drept av Murphy-Dolan-bevæpnede William Morton, Frank Baker, Jesse Evans og Tom Hill mens han og hans ranchhender, Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Bob Widenmann og Fred Waite, var kjører ni hester fra ranchen hans på Rio Feliz til Lincoln. Dagen etter sverger Bonney og Brewer ut erklæringer og warrants utstedt av fredsdommer John Wilson for underposen. Mens de prøver å tjene warrants, blir Waite, Bonney og konstabel Martinez arrestert av lensmann William J. Brady. Waite og Bonney savner Tunstalls begravelse, Martinez ville bli sluppet løs. Den 23. blir Bonney og Waite sluppet ut av fengsel.
  • 1. mars, Blir "Dick" Brewer utnevnt til bykonstabel av fredsdommeren John Wilson, Billy er hans stedfortreder. De skal hente inn Tunstalls mordere. Andre er deputert og kaller seg "Regulatorene".
  • 6. mars, Tilsynsmyndighetene arresterer Bill Morton og Frank Baker. Tre dager senere blir Morton, Baker og regulator William McCloskey drept på Agua Negra, og McCloskey antas å ha forrådt regulatorene.
  • 9. mars, Bestemte territorialguvernør Samuel B. Axtell at John Wilson, Peace Justice, hadde blitt ulovlig utnevnt av Lincoln County Commissioners. Wilson hadde deputert regulatorene og utstedt warrants for Tunstalls mordere. Axtells dekret betydde at tilsynsmyndighetenes handlinger, tidligere ansett som lovlige, nå var utenfor loven. Axtell klarte også å tilbakekalle Widenmanns status som stedfortreder i USAs marskalk, noe som gjorde sheriff Brady og hans menn til de eneste lovoffiserene i Lincoln County.
  • 1. april, Jim French, Frank MacNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Brown, Billy the Kid og muligens Bob Widenmann skyter mot sheriffen og hans varamedlemmer gjennom provisoriske portaler av adobe -veggen de sto bak. Bonney blir såret av Matthews mens han forsøkte å gjenvinne riflen som ble tatt fra ham av Brady. Sheriff Brady og nestleder Hindman blir drept.
  • 4. april, Det er et pistolkamp ved Blazer's Mill med Buckshot Roberts. Buckshot og Brewer blir drept, Middleton er hardt såret, Bonney blir beitet av en kule, George Coe får avtatt fingeren.
  • 18. april, The Kid, Middleton, Waite og Brown er tiltalt for drapet på sheriff Brady. Dolan, Evans, Matthews og andre er tiltalt for drapet på Tunstall.
  • 29. april, Blir Frank McNab drept av medlemmer av Seven Rivers Warriors. Ab Saunders er hardt såret, og Frank Coe fanget.
  • 30. april, George Coe skyter og sår Seven Rivers -medlemmet "nederlandske Charlie" Kruling i Lincoln. Syv Rivers -medlemmer Tom Green, Charles Marshall, Jim Patterson og John Galvin blir drept samme dag, og selv om regulatorene får skylden, ble deres engasjement aldri bevist. Syv Rivers -gjengmedlemmer på den tiden begynte å slå på hverandre.
  • 15. mai, Regulators tok noen hevn ved å storme området rundt Seven Rivers, fange og drepe Manuel Segovia, cowboyen som hadde drept Frank McNab.
  • 15. juli, var regulatorene omgitt i Lincoln ved McSween -huset. Mot dem sto cowboyene Dolan/Murphy/Seven Rivers.
  • 19. juli, huset ble brent. Da flammene spredte seg og natten falt, fikk Susan McSween trygg passering ut av huset mens mennene inne fortsatte å bekjempe brannen. Ved 9 -tiden ble de som var igjen inne klar til å bryte ut bakdøren til det brennende huset. Jim French gikk først ut, etterfulgt av Billy the Kid, Tom O'Folliard og Jose Chavez y Chavez. Dolan -mennene så de løpende mennene og åpnet ild og drepte Harvey Morris, Alexander McSwens lovpartner. Noen tropper flyttet inn i bakgården for å ta de som var igjen i varetekt da en skuddveksling i nær rekkefølge brøt ut. Alex McSween ble drept, det samme var Seven Rivers cowboy Bob Beckwith. Med McSween død var krigen over.

Til syvende og sist oppnådde Lincoln County War lite annet enn å skape mistillit og fiendskap i området og å gjøre flyktninger ut av de overlevende regulatorene, særlig Billy the Kid. The Kid, Scurlock, Bowdre, Chavez y Chavez, Waite, Saunders, Brewer, Brown, McNab og Coe -søskenbarnene mottok mest beryktet som å være "Regulatorer". Etter hvert spredte hans medvåpenmenn seg til deres forskjellige skjebner, og Billy the Kid satt igjen med Charlie Bowdre, Tom O'Folliard, Dirty Dave Rudabaugh og noen få andre venner som han raslet storfe og begikk andre småforbrytelser mens han forhandlet om amnesti. som aldri ville komme, og unngikk fangst.

  • Ab Saunders døde i 1884, i San Francisco, California, under operasjonen for å rette opp problemer han fortsatt led på grunn av såret hans mottatt 29. april 1878.
  • Fred Waite dro tilbake til det som i dag er Oklahoma, hvor han som medlem av Chickasaw Nation slo seg ned som en rancher og til slutt gikk inn i politikk.
  • Frank og George Coe flyttet rundt en tid, og til slutt kom de tilbake til Lincoln, hvor de ble høyt respekterte borgere og vellykkede ranchere.
  • Jose Chavez y Chavez ble til slutt politibetjent, men ble involvert i et drap for utleie, som han tilbrakte tid i fengsel for. Etter løslatelsen levde han et tilsynelatende stille liv til han døde i 1924.
  • Robert A. Widenmanns karriere etter New Mexico tok ham til Storbritannia, hvor han besøkte Tunstalls familie og til Haverstraw, NY, hvor han døde 13. april 1930 i en alder av 78 år.
  • Doc Scurlock flyttet til Texas, hvor han ble en respektert borger i både Potter County, Texas og Eastland County, Texas, og døde i en alder av 79 år.

De fleste av de rundt 40 plussregulatorene var relativt ukjente, og deres oppholdssted etter at krigen var slutt, går tapt for historien.


Encyclopedia of the Great Plains

Billy the Kid var en fredløs hvis legende har overskygget enhver personlig eller historisk betydning han måtte ha. Det er ikke tilfredsstillende dokumentert når og hvor han ble født, selv om det har blitt fastslått at hans egentlige navn var Henry McCarty. I 1880 i Fort Sumner, New Mexico, fortalte McCarty (alias Billy Antrim, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim, Billy Bonney, William H. Bonney og Billy the Kid) til en føderal folketelling at han var tjuefem år gammel, at begge hans foreldre hadde blitt født i Missouri, og at han også hadde blitt født der. Det er ingen grunn til å tro at han løy. Det kan dokumenteres at han i 1866 bodde i Marion County, Indiana, sammen med sin mor, Catherine McCarty, og hans eldre bror, Joseph McCarty. Catherine McCarty led av tuberkulose, og dette kan ha fått henne til å flytte lenger vest. I 1873 giftet Billys mor seg med William H. Antrim i Santa Fe, New Mexico. Kort tid etter morens død i 1874 begynte han å vandre og tilbrakte to år som generalarbeider, cowboy og teamster i det østlige Arizona.

Bare fire drap kan dokumenteres mot ungen. Den første skjedde i 1877 i Camp Grant, Arizona, da Billy skjøt og drepte Frank "Windy" Cahill etter at et argument ble voldelig. The Kid ble funnet skyldig i "kriminelt og uforsvarlig" skyting, men han rømte fra varetekt og returnerte til New Mexico. Kid's andre drap skyldes hans engasjement i Lincoln County War, en dødelig feide som involverte lokale handels- og storfeinteresser. På den ene siden sto den skotske advokaten Alexander Mc-Sween og John H. Tunstall, en engelskmann som eide en storfe i Lincoln County. På den andre var James Dolan og Lawrence Murphy, kjøpmenn i byen Lincoln. I januar 1878 jobbet Kid for Tunstall. Da Tunstall ble myrdet av Murphy-Dolan-fraksjonen, erklærte Kid og andre Tunstall-McSween-allierte seg som "regulatorer" og søkte hevn.

Det neste året ble det ført blodig gjengjeldelseskrig mellom de to fraksjonene. I begynnelsen av mars arresterte regulatorene og drepte deretter Dolan -medarbeiderne Frank Baker og Billy Morton, angivelig mens paret prøvde å rømme. På det tidspunktet erklærte territoriell guvernør John Axtell at regulatorene var fredløse etter at de ble jaget. April 1878, da lensmann William Brady og nestleder George Hindman, begge allierte fra Dolan, prøvde å gå i bakhold av McSween, slo regulatorene tilbake og drepte lovmennene. Tre dager senere kjempet regulatorene mot "Buckshot" Roberts, en tungt bevæpnet dusørjeger, ved Blazer's Mill. Roberts og Dick Brewer, en regulator, ble drept i skuddvekslingen. Det avgjørende slaget ved Lincoln County War ble utkjempet under en fem dagers shoot-out i Lincoln i juli 1878. Sniping fortsatte i fire dager, med regulatorene fanget inne i McSween hus. På den femte dagen, etter at den ineffektive amerikanske hæren ankom, ble McSween hus brent, og ungen ledet et rush ut av det brennende huset. The Kid klarte å rømme, men McSween og flere andre var gjennomsyret av kuler.

Sammen med det som var igjen av regulatorene, ble ungen forbudt for godt. I desember 1880 fanget den nyvalgte lensmannen i Lincoln County, Pat Garrett, og andre lovmenn Kid på Stinking Springs. Det var to føderale tiltale mot Kid. Den første var for å drepe Buckshot Roberts, den andre var for døden til en kontorist på Mescalero -reservatet. Påtalemyndigheten bestemte at begge disse anklagene trolig ville resultere i frifinnelse, så det ble besluttet å prøve Kid for drapet på sheriff Brady. The Kid ble funnet skyldig og dømt til å henge, men han rømte 28. april 1881 etter å ha drept to vakter. The Kid ble skutt i hjel natten til 14. juli 1881, drept av Pat Garrett under et bakhold på gamle Fort Sumner.

Hundrevis av bøker, film, radioprogrammer, TV -programmer og til og med en ballett har senere blitt inspirert av legenden om Billy the Kid. Som en legende er ungen åpen for en rekke tolkninger, hovedsakelig som en god mann som gikk dårlig, som en dårlig mann som forble dårlig, som en god mann som ble falskt forfulgt. Historikere har også gjort seg skyldige i å ha brukt Kid's liv for å bevise en eller annen tese om hans sanne natur. Ingenting av dette har selvsagt noe å gjøre med den historiske Billy the Kid som sannsynligvis drepte bare fire menn, generelt under omstendigheter som kan tenkes som selvforsvar, og som var uheldig nok til å finne seg på den tapende siden i en merkantil krig.

Jon Tuska Golden West Literary Agency

Fulton, Maurice Garland. Historien om Lincoln County War. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1968.

Tuska, Jon. Billy the Kid: His Life and Legend. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.


The Kid's First Kill Henry Antrim mot Windy Cahill

17. august 1877

Det er en fredag ​​kveld, og unge Henry Antrim spiller poker i George Atkins Cantina, like utenfor militærreservatet i Fort Grant, Arizona.

Antrim, hvis virkelige etternavn er McCarty, er en ung løpsk (sannsynligvis 16, kanskje 17) som har stjålet saler og hester fra soldatene på fortet. Antrim og eks-soldat John Mackie spesialiserer seg på en tag-teammetode for å ta tak i fjell mens tropperne er opptatt på den nærliggende Hog Ranch (hærslang for et bordell).

Den kvelden blir Antrim sidelengs med fortsmeden Frank "Windy" Cahill, som kaller den lille ungdommen for en "hallik". Antrim kaller den store ireren for en “drittsekk”.

De to begynner å slite. Den eldre mannen kaster gutten på gulvet flere ganger, til slutt klemte Antrim armene ned med knærne og slo guttens ansikt.

Til tross for at han ble festet til bakken, klarer gutten å hente pistolen sin fra midjen på buksene. Tilskuere melder om et "øredøvende brøl" mens gutten brenner pekende tomt inn i smeden. Cahill faller til siden.

Gutten svirrer seg fri og løper utenfor der han tar den raskeste hesten - Cashaw - som tilhører John Murphy. Den nylig pregede mannkiller, som senere skulle bli kjent som Billy the Kid, sporer fjellet østover mot New Mexico.

Døde ord

Smedens døende ord er trykt i Arizona Weekly Star 23. august: «Jeg, Frank Cahill, som er overbevist om at jeg er i ferd med å dø, gjør følgende som min siste uttalelse. Mitt navn er Frank P. Cahill. Jeg ble født i fylket og byen Galway, Irland i går, 17. august 1877, jeg hadde problemer med Henry Antrem [sic], ellers kjent som Kid, hvor han skjøt meg. Jeg hadde kalt ham en hallik, og han kalte meg en drittsekk. Da tok vi tak i hverandre. Jeg traff ham ikke, jeg tror jeg så ham gå etter pistolen sin og prøvde å få tak i den, men klarte ikke og han skjøt meg i magen Jeg har en søster ved navn Margaret Flannigan som bor i East Cambridge, Mass. og en annen som heter Kate Conden, som bor i San Francisco. ”

Etterspill: Odds og amp slutter

Gutshotet Frank Cahill ble ført til Fort Grant i nærheten, der assistentkirurg Fred Crayton Ainsworth gjorde det han kunne for å redde ham. Dagen etter kunne kirurgen se at Windy ikke ville overleve såret hans. Notarius public Miles Wood (som tidligere hadde arrestert Henry Antrim og marsjerte ham til Fort Grant før han rømte) ble innkalt til fortet. Han tok Cahills uttalelse om dødsleiet (til venstre). Cahill døde i smerte og ble gravlagt på postkirkegården søndag 19. august.

Miles Wood, i tillegg til å være notar, var også fredens rettferdighet. Han arrangerte en rettslig etterforskning og kalte seks lokalbefolkning som jurymedlemmer: Milton McDowell, George Teague, T. McCleary, B.E. Norton, James L. Hunt og DH Smith. De kom raskt til en dom om at skytingen av Cahill hadde vært "kriminell og uforsvarlig, og at Henry Antrim aliasbarn er skyldig i det."

Kid Antrim flyktet tilbake til Silver City, New Mexico, område der han slo seg sammen med et flau band av fredløse ledet av den beryktede John Kinney. Gruppen reiste østover og landet i Mesilla. Etter en mulig fengsel i nærheten der, reiste guttene til Lincoln, hvor unge Henry ble involvert i Lincoln County War. På et tidspunkt byttet han navn til et alias, William Bonney. I det siste året av livet, 1880-1881, ble han kjent som Billy the Kid.

Anbefalt: The West of Billy the Kid av Frederick Nolan, utgitt av University of Oklahoma Press. Antrim er min stefars navn av Jerry Weddle, utgitt av Arizona Historical Society.

Relaterte innlegg

Hvor mange menn drepte Doc Holliday? Russ Charles Albuquerque, New Mexico John Henry “Doc” og hellip

Wild Bunch -medlem O.C. "Camilla" Hanks var nesten utsatt for feil identitet da han og hellip

I denne siste delen av Boggs Killstraight -serie, Kill the Indian, drar Daniel Killstraight til Texas og hellip

I 1999 kjøpte Bob Boze Bell og partnere True West magazine (utgitt siden 1953) og flyttet redaksjonene til Cave Creek, Arizona. Bell har utgitt og illustrert bøker om Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp og Doc Holliday, samt Classic Gunfights, en bokserie fra Old West. Hans siste bøker er The 66 Kid og True West Moments.


Billy the Kid

Natten til 14. juli 1881, Lensmann Pat Garrett skutt ut fredløs Billy the Kid i Fort Sumner. Garrett hadde nylig fanget Kid, som ble dømt til å henge for å ha drept en annen sheriff, men Billy klarte å rømme. Garrett ble involvert igjen da han hørte et tips om at ungen gjemte seg i fortet.

Du kan lese alt om Billys siste natt fra synspunktet til mannen som skjøt ham. Et år etter å ha trykket på avtrekkeren, skrev og publiserte Pat Garrett en beretning om hva som skjedde den kvelden, og du kan finne den kontoen her.

Billy the Kid fikk en postuum benådning for drapet som han skulle henges for. Bill Richardson, guvernøren i New Mexico, nektet å følge med på den benådningen.

Fortjener ungen Billy tilgivelsen han ble lovet?
10. august 2010

For alle dere ville, ville vesten vest -fans der ute, her er et innlegg som garantert blir interessant!

Billy the Kid har lenge vært et av de mange navnene knyttet til det ville vesten, sammen med Bob Dalton -gjengen, Butch Cassidy og Sundance Kid, Cole Younger, Jesse James og mer. Det du kanskje ikke vet er at den lenge døde Kid kan få benådning fra nåværende guvernør i New Mexico, Bill Richardson. Så hvorfor er den beryktede Billy the Kid klar for denne benådningen, spør du? La meg forklare ved å starte med en liten historietime.

Billy the Kid - født William Henry McCarty, men også kjent som William H. Bonney - kom opprinnelig fra New York. Mens han fortsatt var ung, flyttet familien til New Mexico. Dessverre, da Kid var femten år gammel, var moren hans død av tuberkulose. Det var på dette tidspunktet mange kilder sier at ungen begynte sitt kriminelle liv - begynte med å stjele og gå videre til drap. Andre kilder sier at ungen rett og slett fikk en dårlig start på livet uten foreldreveiledning. Han sluttet seg til feil grupper og endte med å løpe fra loven. Et spesielt feilgrep i Kid's liv var hans tilknytning til Lincoln County War. Som et resultat av en av de mange bakholdene som skjedde, ble Lincoln County Sheriff William Brady og en av hans varamedlemmer funnet døde etter å ha blitt skutt av Kid. Billy ble flyktning.

På et tidspunkt etter disse drapene ble Lew Wallace guvernør i New Mexico. Nå ser det ut til at historiene om det som faktisk skjedde neste kolliderer, så det er nok å si at ungen havnet i varetekt. Han inngikk en avtale med guvernøren om at hvis han skulle vitne mot personer som var involvert i Lincoln County War, ville han motta full benådning for involvering i sheriff Bradys død og andre ugjerninger. The Kid vitnet som lovet, men benådningen ble aldri gitt. Så unnslip ungen seg varetekt og unngikk loven de neste to årene.

I løpet av Kid's tid som fredløs ble Pat Garrett valgt til lensmann og sendt etter ham. Nok en gang havnet Billy the Kid i varetekt. Denne gangen ble han imidlertid dømt til å henge for sheriff Bradys død. Mens han var i fengsel, rømte ungen igjen - denne gangen drepte to vakter i prosessen. Nok en gang ble lensmann Garrett sendt etter Kid. Neste gang barnet møtte lensmannen, ville det imidlertid være hans siste.

14. juli 1881 skjøt lensmann Garrett, under dekning av skygger, Billy the Kid i en bolig i Fort Sumner. Noen tror at ungen levde videre som "Brushy Bill" Roberts, men andre mener at gutten faktisk ble begravet dagen etter på Fort Sumner kirkegård. På et tidspunkt, på grunn av debatten, hadde det vært en bevegelse for å få de antatte kroppene til Kid og moren hans gravd opp for DNA -testing. En dommer avviste tilsynelatende mot innsatsen, men det har ikke stoppet dagens guvernør Richardsons interesse for saken. Han fortsetter å undersøke om ungen med rette fortjener en postuum benådning som lovet av guvernør Wallace. Som du kan forestille deg, er det mye kontrovers fra denne undersøkelsen - hvilken side vil du slutte deg til? Klikk her for å signere en begjæring om benådning av Billy the Kid, eller klikk her for å signere en begjæring som er imot den benådningen.

Triks er for barn
30. desember 2010

New Mexico -guvernør, Bill Richardson, har bare timer igjen til å bestemme om han skal benåde "Billy the Kid" eller ikke ved drapet på en lensmann. Saken dateres tilbake til 1881 ... så hvorfor kan du spørre nyttårsaftens frist? Det er den siste dagen i Richardsons periode.

For de av dere som klør i hodet og lurer på hvem Billy the Kid er, er han den vestlige fredløs også kjent som William Bonney. Han døde av pistolen til Sherriff Pat Garrett i en alder av 21. Til tross for sin unge alder ble det sagt at Kid hadde drept mellom 9 og 21 menn. Richardsons visestabssjef Eric Witt ønsker å presisere at de ikke tilbyr generell benådning for alle Kid's forbrytelser, men snarere en benådning for den enkelte saken om å drepe en lensmann.

Richardson er en kjent Billy the Kid -tilhenger, og vurderer benådningen på grunn av et påstått løfte fra guvernør Lew Wallace. Han uttaler: "Bare tenk på all den gode publisiteten New Mexico får rundt om i verden om dette ... Det er morsomt". Det definerende spørsmålet dreier seg om troen på at Wallace lovet denne benådningen i bytte mot Kid's kunnskap i en drapssak som involverte tre menn. De som er imot benådningen, argumenterer for at det ikke er noe bevis på at guvernør Wallace noen gang har tilbudt en han kan ha lurt Kid til å tilby informasjon. Lew Wallaces etterkommer William Wallace hevder at benådning av Billy the Kid ville "erklære Lew Wallace for å ha vært en vanærende løgner".

Noen av de som er til fordel for Kid's benådning har sendt inn et begjæring, inkludert forsvarer Randi McGinn som har tilbudt å behandle saken gratis. Hun skriver, "Et løfte er et løfte og bør håndheves". McGinn sier også at Wallace forsikret Kid om at han hadde myndighet til å unnta ham fra påtale hvis han skulle samarbeide og dele kunnskapen hans, men at Wallace aldri holdt opp med å avslutte avtalen.

Sheriff Pat Garretts barnebarn, J.P. Garrett, argumenterer for at Richardson burde ha gitt en upartisk historiker til hjelp i saken, og mener at McGinns engasjement kan være en interessekonflikt. Richardson utnevnte Charles Daniels til statens høyesterett, som McGinn er gift med. William Wallace er enig, og siterer også at McGinn har "magre kvalifikasjoner". Til tross for disse anklagene, hevder McGinn at hennes eneste tilknytning til administrasjonen er at hun tilbød seg å behandle saken gratis på grunn av Richardsons livslange interesse for Billy the Kid.

Richardson sa til Associated Press onsdag: "Jeg vet ikke hvor jeg ender. Jeg kan ikke tilgi ham. Men da kan jeg ". Jeg antar at vi bare alle må vente i spenning på utfallet av denne avdøde fredløses rettslige skjebne.

Unnskyld ikke gitt
3. januar 2011

Guvernør i New Mexico, Bill Richardson, nektet å benåde den vestlige fredløse Billy the Kid i løpet av hans siste timer på kontoret. Benådningen var på vegne av drapet på Sherriff William Brady i 1878. Hva var årsaken til denne siste avgjørelsen? På ABCs, "Good Morning America" ​​fredag, forklarte Richardson at bevisene i saken rett og slett ikke berettiger til benådning. Han uttalte at han bestemte seg for benådningen, "på grunn av mangel på enighet og historisk tvetydighet om hvorfor guvernør Wallace avslo sitt løfte."


Billy's Bastard Child? Den virkelige historien bak Paulita Maxwell og hennes forhold til fredløs.

Inkludert i albumet til Paulita er et uidentifisert bilde som kan være av hennes eneste sønn, Telesfor José (til venstre). Noen historikere mistenker at dette faktisk er et bilde av William “Julian” Maxwell, den uekte sønnen til Lucien Maxwell og en amerikansk indisk kvinne. Robert G. McCubbin, fotograf fra Old West og autentisering av True West, er enig med sistnevnte.
-Alle bildene er gjengitt med tillatelse av Judi Flanner Arbogast, oldebarn til José og Paulita Maxwell, fra Paulitas personlige utklippsbok med mindre annet er oppgitt av Maxwell med boken Colorado Colorado Society-

Den intense, varme, dampende og ulovlige romantikken mellom 20 år gamle Henry "Billy the Kid" McCarty og 16 år gamle Paulita Maxwell har blitt akseptert over hele verden som et faktum. At den beryktede fredløse hadde gjort Paulita til en seksuell erobring gir en spennende historie. Likevel var Paulita aldri en kjærlighetsinteresse, langt mindre en elsker av Kid. Ikke et eneste bevismateriale støtter denne historien.

Popular lore hevder Paulita and the Kid hadde en romantikk før Kid ble fanget 23. desember 1880, og etter at han rømte fengselet 28. april 1881. Barnet døde 14. juli 1881. For at deres påståtte kjærlighetsbarn skulle bli født legitim, Paulitas innflytelsesrike mor, Luz og eldre bror, Peter, sendte Paulita inn i et haglegeværbryllup i januar 1882 til en godtroende lokal saueherder, José Felix Jaramillo.

I virkeligheten involverte Maxwell-Jaramillo ekteskap et kjærlig par og en katolsk seremoni i Fort Sumner, New Mexico Territory, planlagt over flere måneder. Pårørende fra begge familiene reiste mer enn 175 miles for å delta.

Maxwells og Jaramillo -familien hadde kjent hverandre i mer enn et tiår og kanskje før Lucien Bonaparte Maxwell til og med flyttet familien og dusinvis av venner og arbeidere til Fort Sumner i 1871.

Brudgommen hadde en saueranch i nærheten av den som eies av hans eldre bror, Telesfor, i Los Lunas -området i Valencia County. Mer enn en uke før bryllupet dro Telesfor og kona hans i åtte år, Sofia Maxwell Jaramillo, Paulitas storesøster, på den lange turen til Fort Sumner med vogn for å delta i feiringen.

Jaramillos var minst like velstående og respektert som Maxwells og var immun mot å bli tvunget til et ekteskap de ikke ønsket. Sannheten var at Paulita og José elsket hverandre.

Utsikten over Paulita Maxwell kjent av de fleste historieinteresserte er den
av at hun hadde en bok. Hennes personlige fotoalbum avslører flere bilder av
Paulita fra de yngre dagene til de eldre årene.

Bryllupet fant sted 18 måneder etter barnets død 15. juli 1881.

On January 14, 1883, Paulita, two months shy of her 19th birthday, married José, 21, during a Sunday mass officiated by Father A. Reden.

After mass, a reception followed that included just about everyone in the area. The celebration carried on until the wee hours of the next morning.

The newlyweds spent their wedding night in the Maxwell home in Fort Sumner. On January 16 or 17, the extended Maxwell and Jaramillo families left Fort Sumner with the bride and groom and traveled 125 miles to Las Vegas. Due to the tremendous amount of rain in the area along the Pecos River, the wedding party traveled along muddy roads and river banks overrun with floodwaters and suffered from chilling winds throughout the journey.

The weather delayed the wedding party’s arrival to the Plaza Hotel by five days. On January 25, the party arrived at the city’s newest hotel, opened in spring 1882, which offered spacious rooms, modern conveniences, a restaurant and a bar. A day or so later, the wedding photos were taken at a local studio.

The party left mid-week by train via Santa Fe and Albuquerque, then by wagon to José’s sheep ranch near Los Lunas. Upon arrival, the women helped Paulita establish her new household where she and José would live for the next 20 years or so.

Several newspaper articles, along with the Catholic Church’s marriage record, substantiate the 1883—not 1882—year for Paulita and José’s wedding.

But what of Telesfor José Jaramillo, the alleged love child of Paulita and the Kid?

The child was named in honor of José’s brother, Telesfor, who had died unexpectedly in July 1891. And he was not their first-born child. The first of their three children, Adelina, was born in January 1884. Luz was born in November 1890. Telesfor José was born in Fort Sumner on June 7, 1895—14 years after the Kid’s death. No records or family stories reveal Paulita gave birth prior to Adelina.

Telesfor José spent his first 14 years on the family sheep ranch near Los Lunas, then 14 years living with his mother in Fort Sumner, before he moved back to Los Lunas in 1923, marrying Reina Romero. In 1934, Reina bore him one son, Luciano, who, after spending all his life in the same area, passed away in 2004, having never married and no known children. Telesfor José died of cardiac disease at age 64 on September 9, 1959.

Unfortunately for Paulita, by the mid-1890s, José was abusive toward her. She found a retreat at her brother Peter’s and mother’s homes in Fort Sumner, but these havens ended when Peter died in June 1898 and Luz died in July 1900.

Within a few years after the 1900 Federal Census, Paulita separated from José, rather than stay in that relationship, according to family lore. Given the era and the fact that José and Paulita were Catholic, they never divorced or had their marriage annulled. Neither remarried. She retained some of the real estate, as tax records show she paid taxes on land in Valencia County as late as 1917.

In late spring 1909, Paulita moved her children and household to the new site of Fort Sumner, about four miles from the original settlement, with its railroad depot and a boomtown population of nearly 700 residents. She purchased and managed the new Commercial Hotel across from the depot her cousin, Rebecca Beaubien, owned the Pecos Valley Hotel down the street. The 1910 census has 15-year-old Telesfor José living with Paulita.

Paulita, 56, identified herself as a widow when the census came calling in 1920. We don’t know where José was living then we do know he was in Fort Sumner when he met his maker on March 28, 1937.

Whatever the reason the two had parted, Paulita was retired and financially secure, having sold her hotel to an oil company, which freed her son, Telesfor José, 25, to manage her estate. The census also recorded other family members who were living with Paulita: her first daughter, Adelina Adelina’s husband, Joseph Welborn and their daughter.

Unfortunately, Fort Sumner’s boomtown “bust” in the late 1920s left Paulita near penniless by decade’s end. At the time of her death, she had a mere $100 worth of personal property, in addition to her venture real estate purchases.

In the early and mid-1920s, author Walter Noble Burns and others tracked down and interviewed the old-timers who had roamed the New Mexico countryside at the same time as the Kid. Paulita, in her late 50s, and other Old Fort Sumner residents never mentioned she was ever pregnant with the Kid’s child. Paulita stated that she and the Kid had never had a romantic relationship, although she admitted openly that she, like many others, had been infatuated with him and at one point would have married him if he had loved her.

Even after his interview, while writing his 1926 book, The Saga of Billy the Kid, Burns portrayed Paulita in alignment with all the unfounded rumors of a torrid love affair with the Kid. His publisher, who knew his descriptions could not be confirmed, wisely cut parts and modified others to prevent a probable defamation of character lawsuit. The publisher made the right decision.

Burns and those of his ilk do not appreciate the fact that, up to the time of her marriage, Paulita was tightly chaperoned, almost always by her Navajo household servant, Deluvina Maxwell, and by local adult women when she attended bailes and went into town. Even if Paulita had unlikely gotten away, why would she have romanced the Kid in the summer of 1881, after his murderous escape from the Lincoln County Courthouse jail when he had killed two deputy sheriffs, had the law gunning for him and would be hanged on the gallows if captured?

Despite Paulita’s interviews, some writers and TV documentary producers have stretched an unsubstantiated and denied romantic relationship into a ludicrous scenario in which brother Peter alerts Sheriff Pat Garrett of the Kid’s whereabouts in Fort Sumner and allegedly plots with him to ambush the Kid before he could elope with Paulita. Somewhere along the way, this wild, inaccurate tale became accepted as fact.

Paulita and José raised two daughters: Adelina (left) and Luz (above). Paulita passed down her album to Luz, who gave it to her son Charles Flanner. The treasure is now owned by Judi Flanner Arbogast, daughter to Charles and great-granddaughter to Paulita.

After a two-day fight with pneumonia brought on by influenza, Paulita died at 65 on December 17, 1929, at her home on Sumner Avenue in Fort Sumner. Her body was buried in the Old Fort Sumner military cemetery. In 1937, her estranged husband, José, was buried next to her.

Paulita passed away frustrated because the stories of her true relationship with the Kid and the real family she raised with husband José were never accepted. Hopefully, once and for all, the tale that she was the Kid’s lover and gave birth to the Kid’s love child will cease, and Paulita can at last rest in peace.

Robert J. Stahl is a retired history and social studies education professor from the Teachers College at Arizona State University and an officer for the Scottsdale Corral of Westerners International. He gives thanks to his research assistants Nancy Nance Stahl and Marilyn Stahl Fischer.


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

For over eight months in 2001, investigators pursued Clayton Waagner. Authorities apprehended the fugitive after an all-out effort.

But that effort cost an incredible sum in salaries, travel and various services. Senior Inspector Geoff Shank, the Investigative Services Division case coordinator, recalled that costs exceeded $200,000 before Waagner was captured in December.

But closing these cases has never come cheaply. U.S. marshals and their deputies have been chasing down fugitives for 212 years, and even back in the Old West, they ran up fairly hefty tabs while performing their jobs. When factoring in money values of the times, it's no stretch to say that deputies of bygone days faced financial challenges similar to those of their modern day counterparts.

William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid, has a firm place in American history. Legend has it that before he turned 21, he had killed 21 people - the byproduct of being a major player in a turbulent battle between competing cattle empires in southeast New Mexico Territory. Like many legends before and after him, Billy the Kid was hunted by the U.S. Marshals. They spent many long hours in the process. The year was 1881, but just like in present time, these lawmen still had to eat, sleep and buy supplies.

A recent discovery in the National Archives shed some light on the expenses incurred during the famous final chase for Billy the Kid, who was eventually killed July 14, 1881, by Lincoln County (New Mexico) Sheriff Pat Garrett. (S hown on Right is William Bonney, 'Billy the Kid')

On Nov. 20, 1882, U.S. Marshal John Sherman Jr. wrote Attorney General Benjamin Harris Brewster a seven-page letter. Sherman was writing from law offices in Washington, D.C., on a matter of payment. Part of the letter reads as follows:

Voucher 1, $375.00, is for the subsistence of my deputies, and posse, and hire of horses with forage for the same. This expense was incurred in the arrest of William Bonny (sic), known as "Billy the Kid, " charged with murder and passing counterfeit money also for the arrest of an accomplice by the name of Rudebaugh. This man Bonny was a most notorious character. Large rewards had been offered for his arrest by the Territorial authorities, and frequent attempts made to capture him. He was finally captured by my deputy, lodged in jail, and afterwards shot by Deputy Garrett in attempting to escape. The whole expense in making this arrest was $1.072.00, all of which has been allowed by accounting officers with the exception of $375.00, which they say is in the nature of an extraordinary expense, and requires your approval before it can be allowed. (Pat Garrett shown on left)

In this case, as with many similar instances, Sherman's request for the additional reimbursement was disallowed because the original payments were already settled. Attorney General Brewster could have appealed to President Chester Arthur for funding. but it was often countermanded by the advice of the U.S. Treasury, which operated under strict guidelines.

While $375 does not seem like much today, it was costly in 1882. And Sherman's case was not that obscure. In the 1860s Dakota Territory, it was not always possible to make a straight line in order to reach an objective - especially with Indians in the way. U.S. Marshal L.H. Litchfield, disappointed that one of his official expense reports to serve process shortchanged him $465.35, wrote to the comptroller of the currency in Washington to justify his bill for travel. Den lød:

The necessity for so much travel is apparent . In this case it became my duty to travel 1,200 miles to serve & the same to return the attachment & the same to serve and return the execution making a distance of 4,800 miles traveled. Almost the entire country between here & Fort Abercrombie (where the goods were) in a direct route is inhabited by Indians alone . Consequently, the only feasible route is from here south to Sioux City, Iowa. thence east across the entire length of Iowa to the Mississippi River, thence to St. Cloud, Minnesota, thence west to Dakota, making three right angles. In conclusion I have only to say that the services were performed as economically as possible and the amount ($465.35) is just1y due me.

U.S. Marshal Henry White of West Virginia knew all about money squabbles with Washington. He served from April 1889 until May 1893, and his entire tenure was plagued by the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys.

When Anderson "Devil Anse" Hatfield was arrested for violating revenue laws, Marshal White needed extra guards. He was meticulous in tracking his expenses - such as the charge of 86 miles at 10 cents per mile. White's group contained 10 guards, including three Hatfields. This was a preventative measure, as ambushes were common and bounty hunters were trying to capture Devil Anse. The Hatfields apparently favored the marshals to the McCoys.


6 Buckshot Roberts Defeats Billy the Kid's Entire Gang by Himself

Andrew "Buckshot" Roberts is probably best known for killing Charlie Sheen while taking a dump in Young Guns. The actual story of that day is no less amazing.

You see, Billy the Kid (the famous gunfighter and co-author of Bill and Ted's history report) and his gang the Regulators had a warrant for Roberts' arrest, implicating him in the murder of a rancher named John Tunstall, whom Billy used to work for. Roberts didn't actually have anything to do with Tunstall's death, but he was a shit-kicking Texas outlaw who didn't shy away from gunfights, so when Billy and his gang staged an ambush, Roberts was more than happy to engage in a free exchange of bullets.

That's right -- rather than surrender when he realized he was surrounded by 14 Regulators (that's enough guys to field one and a half heavily armed baseball teams), Roberts instead told them all to go straight to hell.

As the battle commenced, Roberts was hit in the groin almost immediately, which would've taken the fight out of Quick Draw McGraw himself. But Roberts continued firing until his rifle was empty, wounding three Regulators and taking them out of the fight. Billy the Kid tried to take advantage of Roberts' dick wound by rushing him, but Roberts took his empty rifle and clubbed the blazing pigshit out of him.

Roberts retreated into a house to reload, where Regulator Dick Brewer (Charlie Sheen's character in the movie) tried to sneak up on him. Roberts spotted Brewer and blasted his head into skull-and-brains confetti. At that point, Billy the Kid decided it was way too early in the day for any more of this bullshit and ordered his gang to beat feet, leaving Buckshot Roberts alone to bleed to death a day later. Go back and read that sentence again -- one of the most famous gunfighters in history, backed up by his entire gang, wasn't enough to bring the mortally wounded Buckshot Roberts down.

Related: 6 Baffling Robert Pattinson Stories That Raise More Questions Than Answers


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

MP3 -fil
William Bonney, known to the world as Billy the Kid, was involved in his first murder today in 1877. As with many famous people from the era of the American Wild West, his legend is much larger than his stature in real life. Although he has been dead for 125 years, Billy the Kid still defines the image of the young, sharp-shooting outlaw.

The man who would one day be called Billy the Kid used several aliases during his short life, including Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William Bonney. Since little is known about his youth or his parents, his real name has been lost to the dustbin of the ages. He was short, thin and had blue eyes. Most people who met him described him as friendly, but he could also display a fierce temper at a moment's notice. His abilities with a pistol or rifle were legendary but probably true. He had quick senses, which gave him an almost animal-like ability to sense and escape from danger. His instinct alone saved his life more than once.

Billy's story as a fugitive from justice began in 1875, when he escaped from the Silver City, New Mexico jail while being held on charges of theft. He worked as a ranch hand for the next two years before being hired to drive a team of horses for the Camp Grant Army post. He almost immediately developed a confrontational relationship with Frank Cahill, a civilian blacksmith at the post. On August 17th, 1877, Billy and Cahill exchanged heated words, which resulted in Cahill attacking Billy and throwing him to the ground. Cahill was a large man Billy was 17 years old and thin as a rail. Probably out of fear, he drew his pistol and shot Cahill. The blacksmith died the next day, resulting in Billy's arrest. A local Marshal was sent for, but Billy was able to make an escape before a trial could be held.

That fall, Billy showed up in Lincoln County, New Mexico, working as a cattle guard. The residents of the county were fighting a sort of mini-civil war, a conflagration that would come to be known as the Lincoln County Cattle War. The details of the war could fill several thick volumes suffice it to say that Billy ended up riding with a group known as the Regulators, eventually becoming the gang's leader.

As leader of the Regulators, Billy took part in gun battles that resulted in five deaths, most notably Sheriff William Brady. The group was indicted for murder and went on the run for several months. They were finally tracked to a house in Lincoln, where they held out for five days against a posse of deputies and locals. The house was set on fire, forcing the Regulators to face the posse that encircled them. Billy escaped once again. One of the men killed that day was Alexander McSween, a lawyer who was the leader of one side in the county war. With his death, the Lincoln County Cattle War ended.

In the fall of 1878, a general amnesty was proclaimed for anyone involved in the Lincoln County War who was not already under indictment. Billy was living in Texas at this time and was still under indictment for Sheriff William Brady's murder. However, he came forward and offered to testify against other gun fighters if he was granted amnesty. The state agreed to this concession and Billy turned himself in. After testifying, however, he was returned to jail. As he had proven many times in the past, Billy was not fond of the iron bars of a cell. Before any action could be taken against him, he once again freed himself and headed out of town.

Billy became a cattle rustler and gambler for the next 18 months and was involved in several shootings. The activities of his gang drew attention, and not in a good way. The group was hunted by a posse looking for cattle thieves and Billy once again found himself trapped in a house surrounded by armed men. But the posse accidently shot one of their own men, at which point they broke up and allowed Billy and his crew to escape.

Billy's reputation had grown, so much so that newly-elected sheriff Pat Garrett put a $500 bounty on his head. He and his posse were soon surrounded, captured and hauled off the town of Mesilla to wait for trial. He was convicted of murdering Sheriff Brady after a one day proceeding and was sentenced to hang. While being held in the top room of the local courthouse, Billy killed his two guards and escaped. How he managed to do this remains a mystery, but it is believed that he may have slipped out of his handcuffs and grabbed one of the deputies' weapons.

Billy the Kid met his end on July 14, 1881 at Pete Maxwell's house near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Sheriff Garrett came to the house to question Maxwell about Billy's whereabouts, not knowing that the 21-year old was only a room away. The exact events of the evening are shaded by time, but one thing is certain: Pat Garrett shot Billy twice, killing him instantly. He was buried the next day in Fort Sumner's cemetery between two of his Regulator companions.

Much has been made of Billy the Kid's body count. Legend has it that he killed 21 men, one for every year of his life. The truth, however, is much less sensational. Most likely, Billy was involved in 9 murders 5 in which he was with a gang and four when he was alone. One year after he died, Pat Garrett, the sheriff who killed Billy, published a book entitled 'The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid', which was wildly inaccurate and told many of the fanciful tales that survive to this day. The legend was born.


Billy the Kid arrested for first time in 1875

On this day in 1875, Billy the Kid is arrested for the first time after stealing a basket of laundry. He later broke out of jail and roamed the American West, eventually earning a reputation as an outlaw and murderer and a rap sheet that allegedly included 21 murders.

The exact details of Billy the Kid’s birth are unknown, other than his name, William Henry McCarty. He was probably born sometime between 1859 and 1861, in Indiana or New York. As a child, he had no relationship with his father and moved around with his family, living in Indiana, Kansas, Colorado and Silver City, New Mexico. His mother died in 1874 and Billy the Kid—who went by a variety of names throughout his life, including Kid Antrim and William Bonney—turned to crime soon afterward.

McCarty did a stint as a horse thief in Arizona before returning to New Mexico, where he hooked up with a gang of gunslingers and cattle rustlers involved in the notorious Lincoln County War between rival rancher and merchant factions in Lincoln County in 1878. Afterward, Billy the Kid, who had a slender build, prominent crooked front teeth and a love of singing, went on the lam and continued his outlaw’s life, stealing cattle and horses, gambling and killing people. His crimes earned him a bounty on his head and he was eventually captured and indicted for killing a sheriff during the Lincoln County War. Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang for his crime however, a short time later, he managed another jail break, murdering two deputies in the process. Billy the Kid’s freedom was brief, as Sheriff Pat Garrett caught up with the desperado at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on July 14, 1881, and fatally shot him.

Although his life was short, Billy the Kid’s legend grew following his death. Today he is a famous symbol of the Old West, along with such men as Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday and Wyatt Earp, and his story has been mythologized and romanticized in numerous films, books, TV shows and songs. Each year, tourists visit the town of Fort Sumner, located about 160 miles southeast of Albuquerque, to see the Billy the Kid Museum and gravesite.


Patrick Floyd Jarvis Garrett was born on June 5, 1850, in Chambers County, Alabama. He was the second of five children born to John Lumpkin Garrett and wife Elizabeth Ann Jarvis. Garrett's four siblings were Margaret, Elizabeth, John, and Alfred. [1] Garrett was of English ancestry, his ancestors migrated to America from the English regions of Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Lincolnshire and Buckinghamshire. [2] [3] When Pat was three years old his father purchased the John Greer plantation in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. The Civil War, however, destroyed the Garrett family's finances. Their mother died on March 25, 1867, at the age of 37. Then the following year, on February 5, 1868, his father died at age 45. The children were left with a plantation that was more than $30,000 in debt. The children were taken in by relatives. The 18-year-old Garrett headed west from Louisiana on January 25, 1869. [1] : 9 [4] : 28

Buffalo hunter Edit

Garrett's whereabouts over the next seven years are obscure. By 1876 he was in Texas hunting buffalo. During this period Garrett killed his first man, another buffalo hunter named Joe Briscoe. Garrett surrendered to the authorities at Fort Griffin, Texas, but they declined to prosecute. [1] : 29–31 When the buffalo hunting declined, Garrett left Texas and rode to the New Mexico Territory. [4] : 267n, 293n When Garrett arrived at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, he found work as a cowboy for Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell.

Family life Edit

Garrett's first wife was Juanita Martinez, who died 15 days after their marriage. [5] The reference Leon C. Metz made about Juanita being the older sister of Pat's second wife Apolonia is unfounded. Apolonia only had a sister by the name of Celsa Gutierrez. [1] On January 14, 1880, Garrett married Apolinaria Gutierrez. [1] : 40–41 [4] : 94–96 Between 1881 and 1905 Apolinaria Garrett gave birth to eight children: Ida, Dudley, Elizabeth, Annie, Patrick, Pauline, Oscar, and Jarvis.

Pursuit of Billy the Kid Edit

Billy the Kid, born Henry McCarty, and also known as William H. Bonney, was wanted for murder in the aftermath of the Lincoln County War. On November 2, 1880, Garrett was elected sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico, having defeated the incumbent, Sheriff George Kimball, by a vote of 320 to 179. [6] Although Garrett's term would not begin until January 1, 1881, Sheriff Kimball appointed him a deputy sheriff for the remainder of Kimball's term. Garrett also obtained a deputy U.S. Marshal's commission, which allowed him to pursue the Kid across county lines. Garrett and his posse stormed the Dedrick ranch at Bosque Grande on November 30, 1880. They expected to find the Kid there, but only succeeded in capturing John Joshua Webb, who had been charged with murder, along with an accused horse thief named George Davis. [7] Garrett turned Webb and Davis over to the sheriff of San Miguel County a few days later, and moved on to the settlement of Puerto de Luna. There a local tough named Mariano Leiva picked a fight with Garrett and was shot in the shoulder. [8]

On December 19, 1880, Billy the Kid, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, Billy Wilson and Tom O'Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Lying in wait were deputy Garrett and his posse. Mistaking O'Folliard for the Kid, Garrett's men opened fire and killed O'Folliard. [9] Billy and the others escaped unharmed. Three days later, Garrett's posse cornered Billy and his companions at a spot called Stinking Springs. They killed one man and captured the others. [10] On April 15, 1881, Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang by Judge Warren Bristol, but escaped thirteen days later, killing 2 deputies. [11]

On July 14, 1881, Garrett visited Fort Sumner to question a friend of the Kid's about his whereabouts and learned he was staying with a mutual friend, Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell. Around midnight, Garrett went to Maxwell's house. The Kid was asleep in another part of the house, but woke up in the middle of the night and entered Maxwell's bedroom, where Garrett was standing in the shadows. The Kid did not recognize the man standing in the dark. He asked him, repeatedly, "¿Quién es?" ("Who is it?"), and Garrett replied by shooting at him twice. [12] The first shot hit the Kid in the chest just above the heart, while the second missed. Garrett’s account leaves it unclear whether Billy was killed instantly or took some time to die. [1. 3]

His account of Billy the Kid Edit

He coauthored The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid with Ash Upson, [14] and for decades his book was deemed authoritative. [15]

Following Billy the Kid's death, writers quickly went to work producing books and articles that made a folk hero out of Billy the Kid, while making Garrett seem like an assassin. Although filled with many errors of fact, The Authentic Life served afterward as the main source for most books written about the Kid until the 1960s. [16] [17] [18] A failure when originally released, an original copy of the Pat Garrett-Ash Upson book became a rare commodity in 1969 the original 1882 edition of the Garrett-Upson book was described by Ramon F. Adams as being "exceedingly rare." [19] Twentieth-century editions of Garrett's Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid (with alterations to the original title) appeared in 1927, [20] 1946 [21] and 1964. [22]

Texas Ranger Edit

Garrett did not seek re-election as sheriff of Lincoln County in 1882. He moved to Texas, where he ran for office as a state senator and was declined that seat. Garrett became a captain with the Texas Rangers for less than a month, then returned to Roswell, New Mexico. [24]

Irrigation investments and move to Texas Edit

Garrett discovered a large reservoir of artesian water in the Roswell region and went into partnership with two men to organize the "Pecos Valley Irrigation and Investment Company" on July 18, 1885. [25] Garrett kept his irrigation schemes alive for several years, and on January 15, 1887, he purchased a one-third interest in the "Texas Irrigation Ditch Company", but the partners got rid of him. On August 15, 1887, he formed a partnership with William L. Holloman in the "Holloman and Garrett Ditch Company." [26] All of Garrett's forays into the irrigation field, however, resulted in failure. [ trenger Kilde ] By 1892, Garrett had moved his large family to Uvalde, Texas, where he became close friends with John Nance Garner (1868–1967), a future vice president of the United States. [27] Garrett might have lived out the remainder of his life in Uvalde, had it not been for a headline-making event back in New Mexico.

Disappearance of Albert Jennings Fountain Edit

On January 31, 1896, Colonel Albert Jennings Fountain and his eight-year-old son Henry disappeared at the edge of the White Sands area of southern New Mexico. Neither of the Fountains was ever seen again. The mystery was never officially solved, even with the efforts of Apache scouts, the Pinkertons, and an all-out push by the Republican Party. [28] In April 1896, Garrett was appointed sheriff of Doña Ana County, and two years later had gathered sufficient evidence to make arrests, asking a judge in Las Cruces for warrants to arrest Oliver M. Lee, William McNew, Bill Carr and James Gililland. Within hours, he had arrested McNew and Carr. [29]

During the early morning hours of July 12, 1898 Garrett and his posse confronted Oliver M. Lee and James Gililland at a spot called "Wildy Well" near Orogrande, New Mexico. Garrett had hoped to capture the fugitives while they were sleeping, but Lee and Gililland expected trouble and took their bedrolls up to the roof of the bunkhouse to avoid being taken by surprise. One of Garrett's deputies named Kearney heard footsteps on the roof, scaled a ladder, and was mortally wounded by the fugitives. A stray shot nicked Garrett. Due to his concern for his dying deputy, Garrett arranged a truce with the fugitives and withdrew while Kearney was lifted into a wagon. Kearney, however, died on the road to Las Cruces, and Lee and Gililland remained at large for another eight months, before they finally surrendered to Sheriff George Curry. [30] They were found not guilty in the Fountain killings, and the indictments for killing the deputy were also dismissed. [31]

Final kill Edit

Garrett killed his last offender in 1899, a fugitive named Norman Newman, who was wanted for murder in Greer County, Oklahoma. Newman was hiding out at the San Augustin Ranch in New Mexico. Sheriff George Blalock of Greer County went to New Mexico and asked Garrett for his assistance. The lawmen and Jose Espalin, one of Garrett's deputies, rode to the ranch, and on October 7, 1899, Newman was killed in a gunfight. [32]

Presidential appointment in El Paso Edit

On December 16, 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Garrett to the post of collector of customs in El Paso. [33] He also became one of President Roosevelt's three "White House Gunfighters" (Bat Masterson and Ben Daniels being the others). [34] Despite public outcry over his appointment, Garrett was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on January 2, 1902. [35] Garrett's tenure as El Paso's collector of customs was stormy from the start. On May 8, 1903, he got into a public fistfight with an employee named George Gaither. The following morning, both Garrett and Gaither paid five dollar fines for disturbing the peace. [36] Continued complaints about Garrett's alleged incompetence were sent to Washington. [37] Through it all, President Roosevelt stood by Garrett. As a show of his support, Roosevelt invited Garrett to attend a Rough Riders reunion being held in San Antonio during April 1905. Since Garrett had not been a member of that regiment, Roosevelt's invitation was taken as a snub at those critics who wanted Garrett replaced from his post. Garrett brought a guest of his own to the event named Tom Powers. Garrett introduced Powers to the president as "a prominent Texas cattleman." Garrett and Powers posed for two photographs with Roosevelt, first standing with him in a group and later seated with Roosevelt at dinner. [38] Garrett's enemies obtained copies of the photos and sent them to Roosevelt, informing the president that instead of being the "cattleman" that Garrett claimed, Powers was, in fact, the owner of a "notorious dive" in El Paso called the Coney Island Saloon. That was the final straw for Roosevelt, who replaced Garrett with a new collector of customs on January 2, 1906. [39]

Financial problems Edit

Following his dismissal, Garrett returned with his family to New Mexico. Garrett was in deep financial difficulty. His ranch had been heavily mortgaged, and when he was unable to make payments, the county auctioned off all of Garrett's personal possessions to satisfy judgments against him. The total from the auction came to $650. [40] President Roosevelt had appointed Pat's friend George Curry as the territorial governor of New Mexico. Garrett met with Curry, who promised him the position of superintendent of the territorial prison at Santa Fe, once he was inaugurated. Since Curry's inauguration was still months away, the destitute Garrett left his family in New Mexico and returned to El Paso, where he found employment with the real estate firm of H.M. Maple and Company. During this period Garrett moved in with a woman known as "Mrs. Brown", who was described as an El Paso prostitute. [41] When Governor-elect Curry learned of his involvement with Brown, the promised appointment of prison superintendent was withdrawn. [42]

Last conflict and death Edit

Dudley Poe Garrett, Pat's son, had signed a five-year lease for his Bear Canyon Ranch with Jesse Wayne Brazel. [43] Garrett and his son objected when Brazel began bringing in large herds of goats, which were anathema to cattlemen like Garrett. Garrett tried to break the lease when he learned that the money for Brazel's operation had been put up by his neighbor, W. W. "Bill" Cox. He was further angered when he learned that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode was Brazel's partner in the huge goat herd. [44] When Brazel refused, the matter went to court. At this point James B. Miller met with Garrett to try to solve the problem. Miller met with Brazel, who agreed to cancel his lease with Garrett – provided a buyer could be found for his herd of 1,200 goats. Carl Adamson, who was related to Miller by marriage, agreed to buy the 1,200 goats. Just when the matter seemed resolved, Brazel claimed that he had "miscounted" his goat herd, claiming there were actually 1,800 – rather than his previous estimate of 1,200. Adamson refused to buy that many goats, but agreed to meet with Garrett and Brazel to see if they could reach some sort of agreement.

Garrett and Carl Adamson rode together, heading from Las Cruces, New Mexico in Adamson's wagon. Brazel appeared on horseback along the way. Garrett was shot and killed, but exactly by whom remains the subject of controversy. Brazel and Adamson left the body by the side of the road and returned to Las Cruces, where Brazel surrendered to Deputy Sheriff Felipe Lucero. More than thirty years later, Lucero claimed that Brazel exclaimed, "Lock me up. I've just killed Pat Garrett!" Brazel then pointed to Adamson and said, "He saw the whole thing and knows that I shot in self-defense." [45] Lucero incarcerated Brazel, summoned a coroner's jury, and rode to Garrett's death site. Brazel's trial for Garrett's murder concluded on May 4, 1909. [46] Brazel was represented at his trial by attorney and future Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall. The only eyewitness to Garrett's murder, Adamson, never appeared at the trial, which lasted only one day and ended with an acquittal. [47] [48] [49]

Identity of the murderer Edit

The coroner's report on Garrett's death states that Brazel shot Garrett. [50] Brazel reportedly confessed, but was acquitted at trial. Four other suspects have been proposed: Adamson, Cox, Rhode, and Miller. In a book published in 1970, Glenn Shirley gave his reasons for naming Miller as the killer of Pat Garrett. [51] Leon C. Metz in his 1974 biography of Garrett related the claim of W.T. Moyers that "his investigations led him to believe that [W. W.] Cox himself ambushed and killed Garrett.", [52] but also wrote that "[t]he Garrett family believes that Carl Adamson pulled the trigger." [53] In his 2010 book on Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett, Mark Lee Gardner suggests that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode killed Garrett. [54]

Death site Edit

The site of Garrett's death is now commemorated by a historical marker south of U.S. Route 70, between Las Cruces, New Mexico and the San Augustin Pass. [55] [56] The historical marker is located about 1.2 miles from where Garrett was murdered. In 1940 his son, Jarvis Garrett, marked the spot with a monument consisting of concrete laid around a stone with a cross carved in it. The cross is believed to be the work of Garrett's mother. Scratched in the concrete is "P. Garrett" and the date of his killing. The marker is located in the desert. [57] The city of Las Cruces plans a development that would destroy the site. An organization called Friends of Pat Garrett has been formed to ensure that the city preserves the site and marker. [58] [59]

Funeral and burial site Edit

Garrett's body was too tall for any finished coffins available, so a special one had to be shipped in from El Paso. His funeral service was held March 5, 1908, and he was laid to rest next to his daughter, Ida, who had died in 1896 at the age of fifteen. Garrett's grave and the graves of his descendants are in the Masonic Cemetery, Las Cruces. [59]

Garrett has been a character in many films and television shows, and has been portrayed by: