Cow's Head Detail, Silver Lyre, Ur

Cow's Head Detail, Silver Lyre, Ur



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Avdekke de praktfulle instrumentene

Da Woolley begynte å grave på det gamle stedet i Ur, ante han ikke hvor mange uvurderlige skatter det inneholdt. Gåten om de kongelige gravene, der dusinvis av tjenere hadde blitt gravlagt sammen med sine herskere, er en av de skumleste eldgamle historiene om begravelseskultur.

Leonard Woolley holder den herdede gipsformen fra Sumerian Queen's Lyre, 1922. ( Offentlig domene )

Lyres er instrumenter med strenger som før ble strummet med et plukk, eller for hånd, for å lage en fredelig lyd. Du må være rolig og forsiktig med dette instrumentet for å få det til å spille himmelsk musikk. Det var veldig populært i hoffet til sumeriske konger, og mange av dem ønsket å ta denne behagelig klingende musikken til etterlivet. Derfor ble mange lyrer oppdaget på Royal Cemetery of Ur. De er datert tilbake til Early Dynastic III -perioden (2550 - 2450 f.Kr.). Forskere antar at de hadde 11 strenger.


Siteren

Flere forskjellige typer instrumenter er klassifisert som zithers de brukes i dag på alle kontinenter. De lange sitrene i Kina, Japan og Korea, som har en buet overflate og en lang, smal form, viser en mulig kobling til de idiokordiske bambus -sitrene i Stillehavet, Sørøst -Asia og Sørøst -Afrika. Betydningen av bambus for musikk i Asia er bokstavelig talt legendarisk i Java, det antas at musikk først ble produsert av utilsiktet inntak av luft i et bambusrør. I Kina er musikkinstrumenter klassifisert i henhold til deres konstruksjonsmateriale, en av de åtte stoffene i systemet er bambus, som kineserne forholder seg til øst, sesongen vår og fenomenet Mountain. Kineserne zheng, en sitre, inkluderer den radikale betydningen "bambus" i ideografen. Ideografene til de eldre sithene - qin og se- er imidlertid vanskeligere å tolke. Sithere av denne typen er kjent for å ha eksistert i Shang -perioden (c. 1600–1046 f.Kr.) zheng ble først dokumentert i løpet av Qin -perioden (221–207 fvt). På 800-tallet hadde dette instrumentet blitt introdusert for Japan, hvor det som 13-strengs koto blomstrer i dag. Koto, som zheng, spilles ofte av kvinner, selv om hodet til et koto -laug vanligvis er en mann.

En relativ nykommer i spekteret av kinesiske sithere er yangqin ("Fremmed siter"), hvis prototype nådde Kina fra Persia en gang under Ming -dynastiet (1368–1644), er den eneste representanten for boksitteren i Øst -Asia. Sundanesisk kammermusikk fra Indonesia bruker ofte en kacapi, en esker, vanligvis med 18–20 strenger og bevegelige broer. Historien til denne typen akkordofon er virkelig uklar, men to instrumenter av denne generelle formen som kan være veldig gamle er den afrikanske flåten og brettsithere. Flåtsiteren er konstruert etter det idiokordiske prinsippet, men den bruker et antall stokker på omtrent en halv tomme (1,5 cm) i diameter hver av disse har en snor hevet ut av sin egen overflate, og alle stokkene blir deretter surret sammen. Brettsiteren er laget av et uthulet brett som det er festet en rekke strenger over. Dette sistnevnte instrumentet finnes særlig i visse områder i Øst -Afrika, og det er mulig at byggeprinsippet ble fraktet til Midtøsten av handelsmenn.

Middelalderske arabiske forfattere (inkludert Ibn Khaldūn) nevner en plukket trapesformet sitre, qānūn (avledet fra gresk kanōn, "regel"). Det nåværende instrumentet har en rekkevidde på tre oktaver med tre strenger til hver tonehøyde, og et komplekst system av spaker som gjør at dets mange strenger fint og raskt kan justeres tilbake til de forskjellige arabiske skalaene. Nært beslektet er det persisk-avledede sanṭūr, en annen trapesformet siter som treffes av to lette hamre. Versjoner av denne sitteren finnes i Kina ( yangqin), Hellas (santouri), og Øst -Europa (cimbalom). Disse trapesformede sithene er prototypene for de senere tastaturinstrumentene i Vest -Europa: the qānūn, som spilles med to plectra, ble, med tillegg av et keyboard, cembaloen cimbalom, med tillegg av et keyboard, til piano. I middelalderen var tastaturet festet til en rekke instrumenter, inkludert luten, hekkedalen og de forskjellige skandinaviske tastfelene, hvorav den svenske nyckelharpa overlever. Eksperimentet var virkelig vellykket, men bare på clavichord, cembalo og senere pianoet på fela forble det alltid av perifer betydning.


To Lyres fra Ur

147 sider | 5 1/2 x 8 1/2 | 25 farger, 44 s/h illus.
Klut 2002 | ISBN 9780924171888 | $ 29,95t | Utenfor Amerika og £ 22,99
Distribuert for University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
Se innholdsfortegnelsen

I løpet av sesongen 1928-29 på Ur, i Great Death Pit på Royal Cemetery, oppdaget C. Leonard Woolley to spektakulære musikkinstrumenter og mdasha sølvbåtformet Lyre og en praktfull lyre med hodet til en okse laget av gullark og en lapis lazuli skjegg. Denne boken forteller om deres historie, bevaring og gjenoppbevaring. Selv om lite var kjent om midten av tredje årtusen mesopotamisk arkeologi tidlig i forrige århundre, var det klart at sumererne hadde utviklet en kraftig handel med luksusvarer, med en økonomi som nødvendiggjorde en svært strukturert regjering hvis ledere kunne kommandere rike og utførlige graver som inkluderte en full panopi av musikkinstrumenter.

Omhyggelig detaljert, ved bruk av både tradisjonelle metoder og nye røntgen- og elektroniske bildediagnostiske undersøkelsesteknikker, undersøker og analyserer Maude de Schauensee konstruksjonen av de to lyrene som er holdt av Universitetsmuseet, samtidig som den gir en økonomisk, historisk og sosiologisk kontekst for bedre forstå dem. Hun undersøker de dekorative motivene sammen med materialene og teknikkene til byggerne av disse instrumentene. Illustrasjonene og mdash10 strektegninger, 25 fotografier, 6 CAT-skanninger, 5 røntgenstråler og 24 fargeplater og mdash gir ytterligere detaljer. Denne boken presenterer ny informasjon og bevaringsbeskrivelser for første gang. Musikologer, kunsthistorikere, Nær -Østen -forskere og arkeologer og generelle lesere vil finne denne bokens nye analyse av instrumentene til en gammel kultur av betydelig interesse.

Maude de Schauensee, Assisterende redaktør for Hasanlu Publications Series og tidligere Keeper of the Near Eastern Section ved University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, er forfatter av artikler om bronse som arbeider ved Hasanlu, hestefanger og assyriske relieffer og andre nordvestlige iranske temaer.

Se handlekurven | Bla gjennom Penn Press -titler i arkeologi | Bli med på vår mailingliste


Cow's Head Detail, Silver Lyre, Ur - History

Materialene ble spesifisert nøyaktig av Gud. Enhver avvik ville føre til en sikker død.

Vi må huske at israelittene kom ut av Egypt som Guds folk. De var etterkommere av Abraham, den første hebraeren. Det er viktig å huske på eden som Gud sverget da han sluttet pakt med Abraham:

1 Mos 15: 13-14 Da sa han til Abram: & quot Vet sikkert at dine etterkommere vil være fremmede i et land som ikke er deres, og de skal tjene dem, og de vil plage dem i fire hundre år. Og også nasjonen som de tjener vil jeg dømme etterpå, de skal komme ut med store eiendeler.

Og med store eiendeler kom de virkelig ut, som det står:

2 Mosebok 3: 20-22 & quotSå vil jeg strekke ut hånden min og slå Egypt med alle mine underverk som jeg vil gjøre midt iblant det, og etter det skal han slippe deg. Og jeg vil gi dette folket tjeneste for egypterne, og når du drar, skal du ikke gå tomhendt. & quot Men hver kvinne skal be av naboen, nemlig henne som bor i nærheten av huset hennes, sølvartikler, gullgjenstander og klær, og du skal legge dem på sønnene dine og døtrene dine. Så du skal plyndre egypterne. & Quot

Mosebok 12: 35-36 Nå hadde Israels barn gjort etter Moses 'ord, og de hadde bedt egypterne om sølv, gull og klær. Og Herren hadde gitt folket gunst for egypterne, slik at de ga dem det de ba om. Dermed plyndret de egypterne.

Da israelittene kom til Sinai-fjellet, instruerte Herren dem om hva de skulle bringe som et frivillig tilbud (spontan og frivillig å gi) slik at de kunne bygge tabernaklet. Legg merke til hva Gud talte om sin bolig Tabernaklet: (veldig viktige vers)

2Mo 25: 1-9 Så talte Herren til Moses og sa: & quotTal til Israels barn at de skal gi meg et offer. Fra alle som gir det villig med sitt hjerte, skal dere ta Mitt offer. Og dette er offeret du skal ta av dem: gull, sølv og bronse, blått, purpurrødt og skarlagent tråd, fint lin og geithår og rødhudede skinn, grevlingskinn og akacietre og quotoil for lyset, og krydder til salveoljen og til den søte røkelsen & quotonyx -steinene, og steinene som skal settes i efoden og i brystplaten. Og la dem gjøre meg til et fristed, så jeg kan bo blant dem. & quotIfølge alt det jeg viser deg, det vil si mønsteret på tabernaklet og mønsteret til alt dets innredning, bare slik at du skal lage det.

Disse materialene er oppført nøyaktig slik Gud hadde spesifisert (ingenting mer og ingenting mindre) fordi de hver ville ha en spesifikk symbolsk betydning knyttet til det sanne tabernaklet i himmelen og Jesus Kristus. Ingenting kan overlates til tilfeldighetene eller menneskets fantasi, for hvis Herren skal bo her og slå opp teltet sitt med mennesker, skal mennesket nærme seg ham på sin måte og ingen unntak. Detaljene i konstruksjonen vil mønstre på en tidsmessig måte, hva Gud en dag ville gjøre permanent gjennom Jesus Kristus. Tabernaklet ville bli en synlig modell for hvordan vi kommer til Gud gjennom Jesus. La oss se på materialene som skal brukes i konstruksjonen av tabernaklet, og husk at vi må undersøke symbolikken fra et hebraisk bakteppe. Det gamle testamente er fylt med figurativt språk som kan tolkes i lys av konteksten i den hebraiske bibelen:

Materialer (bestilt av Gud)

I følge eks 38 ga de 2800 lbs. av gull. Rent gull gjennom Skriftene snakker om guddommelighet, det som ikke kan gjengis av mennesker. Gull er laget av Gud og kommer ned fra Gud. Gull snakker om Jesu Kristi guddom. Det karakteriserer Herrens Jesu guddommelige herlighet som "Guds Sønn" og "Gud Sønnen". I følge eks 38 ga de 2800 lbs. av gull.

Jesus var ingen ringere enn Jehova i kjødet. Han er & quot; Malach Yaweh, & quot; Jehova kongen. Da Jesaja så Herren høyt og hevet seg som kongen i all sin herlighet, sa Johannes i Det nye testamente at det var Jesus han så:

Johannes 12:41 Disse tingene sa Jesaja da han så hans herlighet og talte om ham.

Sølv kom på 9 600 kg. Gjennom Bibelen taler sølv i overført betydning om forløsning. Det ble alltid brukt som innløsningspenger:

Ex 30:16 & quot Og du skal ta Israels barns innløsningspenger og sette dem til tjeneste ved møteteltet, for at det skal være et minnesmerke for Israels barn for Herren, for å gjøre soning for dere selv . & quot

Tabernaklet sto på sokkelfanger. Både Josef og Jesus ble solgt for sølv. Judas ble nedbetalt i sølv som Bibelen sa. Sølv er innløsningspenger. Sølv er et symbol på forløsningen som kommer gjennom Jesus Kristus og ham alene. Det forhåndsdefinerer Kristi dyrebarhet som løsepenger for syndere. Legg også merke til at det ikke er nevnt sølv i himmelen. Folket vil allerede ha blitt innløst.

Markus 10:45 & quot; for Menneskesønnen kom ikke for å bli tjent, men for å tjene, og for å gi sitt liv en løsepenger for mange. & Quot

Totalt 6.700 kg. av bronse ble gitt til bruk på de stedene der eksepsjonell styrke og varmebestandighet var viktig. Bronse har et smeltepunkt på 1.985 grader. Det var viktig i alteret hvor intens varme var tilstede. De hadde med seg bronse, ikke messing. Messing kommer fra en blanding av kobber og tinn hvor bronse kommer fra kobber og sink.

Bronse representerer dømmekraft. Da Moses reiste bronseslangen, snakket den om at slangens kraft ble dømt gjennom oppstandelsen av Guds Sønn:

Num 21: 9 Så laget Moses en slange av bronse og la den på en stolpe, og slik var det hvis en slange hadde bitt noen, da han så på bronseslangen, levde han.

Bronse karakteriserer Kristi guddommelige karakter som tok på seg ilden av Guds vrede, hellighet og rettferdighet ved å bli et syndoffer.

2 Kor 5:21 For han gjorde ham som ikke kjente synd til synd for oss, for at vi skulle bli Guds rettferdighet i ham.

Matt 27:46 Og omtrent den niende timen ropte Jesus med høy røst og sa: "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" Det vil si: "Min Gud, min Gud, hvorfor har du forlatt meg?"

Vevd inn i eller brodert på sengetøyet var blå, lilla og skarlagen tråder. Det hebraiske ordet for blå betyr skalldyr. Et strålende fargestoff ble utskilt fra denne bløtdyret. Denne lyse fargen nevnes alltid først. Mennesket trengte noe for å foreslå ideen om himmelen som et sted hvor Gud åpenbarer seg mer fullstendig enn på jorden. Derfor representerer fargen blå himmel, himmelen. Blått ble alltid nevnt gjennom tabernaklet for å minne mennesket om at målet er himmelen, og på grunn av vår Forløser er vi bestemt til å være i Guds nærvær. Blå snakker om det som kommer ned ovenfra (& quotfrå ovenfra & quot er et jødisk formspråk for himmelen). Husker du da kvinnen rørte ved den blå kanten av Jesu plagg? Vi ser det nydelige i det blå i vår Herre Jesu Kristi liv, som ikke bare var himmelsk i sin opprinnelse, men i sin natur og sine måter.

Joh 3:31 & quot Den som kommer ovenfra er fremfor alt den som er av jorden er jordisk og snakker om jorden. Den som kommer fra himmelen er fremfor alt.

Hebreerne ville få denne fargen ved å blande blått og skarlet sammen. Denne dyp rød-lilla fargen var en kongelig farge (Kingly).

Dom 8:26 ornamenter, anheng og lilla kapper som var på kongene i Midjan, og i tillegg til kjedene som var rundt kamelenes hals.

Fargen lilla karakteriserer Jesus som kongens konge og herrens herre, men det er en annen viktig sannhet. Blandingen av blått og skarlagen. Blå snakker om det som kommer ned ovenfra, og skarlagen, som vi skal se, representerer blod og død, offer. Lilla er en kombinasjon av begge, som snakker om Kristus som både Gud og menneske, mannen som kom fra himmelen for å dø. På en eller annen mystisk måte tok han på seg likheten av syndig kjøtt.

Jes 33:17 Dine øyne vil se kongen i sin skjønnhet, de vil se landet som er langt borte.


'Scarlet thread' (Offer)

Skarlagen ble avledet fra et østlig insekt (orm) som angriper visse trær. Den ble samlet, knust, tørket og malt til et pulver som produserte en strålende, fargen rød. Scarlet snakker om offer og karakteriserer Kristus i hans lidelser. Korsfestelsen Salme 22 siterer Jesus som sier: & quotI am a a worm & quot. Gud tok på en eller annen måte et legeme av kjøtt og blod og døde deretter for å gi sitt liv som løsepenger for oss alle ved å bli knust i møllene for Guds rettferdighet.

Ef 5: 2 og vandre i kjærlighet, slik Kristus også har elsket oss og gitt seg selv for oss, et offer og et offer til Gud for en luktende duft.

Heb 9:26 Da ville han ha måttet lide ofte siden verdens grunnleggelse, men nå, ved slutten av tidene, har det vist seg å fjerne synden ved å ofre seg selv.

Sengetøyet var mest interessant. Laget av egyptisk lin, var det fint vevd, strålende hvitt og hadde et spesielt navn, & quotbyssus & quot. Dette materialet ble brukt til klær for kongelige og personer av rang og har blitt funnet i gravene til faraoene. Lin i den ene graven ble funnet å ha 152 tråder per tomme i varpen og 72 tråder per tomme i woof. Hvitt lin snakker alltid om renhet og rettferdighet:

Åp 15: 6 Og ut av templet kom de syv englene som hadde de syv plagene, kledd i rent, lyst lin og hadde brystet omgjort med gullbånd.

Åp 3: 5 & quot Den som seirer, skal være kledd i hvite klær, og jeg vil ikke utslette hans navn fra Livets bok, men jeg vil bekjenne hans navn for min Far og for hans engler. & Quot

Åp 19:14 Og hærene i himmelen, kledd i fint lin, hvitt og rent, fulgte ham på hvite hester.

Det fine, tvinnede, hvite linet snakker om rettferdighet og karakteriserer Jesus, Menneskesønnen, skinnende, ren og syndfri.

I Joh 3: 3-5 Og alle som har dette håpet på ham renser seg selv, akkurat som han er ren. og du vet at Han ble åpenbart for å ta bort våre synder, og i ham er det ingen synd.


'Goats Hair' (forbannet syndoffer)

Geiter var vanlige på den tiden for melk, kjøtt, hud som ble brukt til mange ting som vannflasker osv. Og håret, som var veldig langt, mørkt og naturlig, ble spunnet og vevd i klut. Geita var et offerdyr. Goat's Hair -dekket var det første over tabernakelgardinet. Denne triste fargen forteller oss om Jesus i sin ydmykhet og fattigdom. Geitskinn ble slitt av de fattige og representerte i hele Bibelen ekstrem fattigdom.

Heb 11:37 De ble steinet, de ble saget i to, ble fristet, ble drept med sverdet. De vandret rundt i saueskinn og geiteskinn, da de var fattige, plaget, plaget-

Lk 9:58 Og Jesus sa til ham: "Kveker har hull og fugler i luften har reir, men Menneskesønnen har ingen steder å legge hodet."

Og håret snakker om Kristus som den separerte, akkurat som håret må skilles fra bukken, så måtte Kristus ofre sitt eget dekke for å gi et dekke til andre.

Et annet interessant poeng om geita er at den ble brukt på forsoningsdagen. Etter at ypperstepresten hadde fullført blodet som sprinklet i det aller helligste, gikk han inn i tabernaklets forgård og la hendene på syndebukkens hode og bekjente alle folkets synder over den. Geiten ble deretter ført bort, av en mann som stod klar, inn i ørkenen, og der slapp den fri for å betegne bortføringen av Israels synder som Gud hadde tilgitt. Dette minner oss om at Jesus, ydmyk og fattig, ble en forbannelse for oss, for at vi skulle få våre synder ført bort til glemselens land.

2 Kor 5:21 For han gjorde ham som ikke kjente synd til synd for oss, for at vi skulle bli Guds rettferdighet i ham.


'Værskinn farget rødt' (erstatningsoffer)

En vær er en voksen hannfe og flokkens hode. En gjeter kan ha en eller to værer i en flokk med søyer for å fremme ensartethet. Væren er for alltid i jødens øyne som erstatningsdyret, trofast til døden. Dette er selvfølgelig fordi Gud ga en vær som erstatning for Isak den dagen da Abrahams tro ble åpenbart.

Gen 22: 12-13 Og han sa: "Ikke legg din hånd på gutten, eller gjør noe med ham for nå vet jeg at du frykter Gud, siden du ikke har holdt din sønn, din eneste sønn, tilbake fra Meg." Abraham løftet øynene og så, og der bak ham var en vær fanget i et kratt av hornene. Så gikk Abraham og tok væren og ofret den som brennoffer i stedet for sønnen.

Værskinnet ble farget rødt for å representere offeret til en vikar. Så Jesus som leder for menneskeheten, den siste Adam, ofret sitt eget liv som en erstatning for alle som ville sette sin lit til ham.

Heb 2: 9 Men vi ser Jesus, som ble gjort litt lavere enn englene, for dødens lidelse kronet med ære og ære, for at han ved Guds nåde skulle smake døden for alle.

Heb 2:17 Derfor måtte han i alle ting bli lik sine brødre, for at han skulle være en barmhjertig og trofast yppersteprest i ting som angår Gud, for å gjøre forsoning for folks synder.

Joh 1:29 Dagen etter så Johannes Jesus komme mot ham og sa: "Se! Guds lam som tar bort verdens synd!


'Badger skins' (ytre utseende-lite attraktivt)

Grevlingskinn var det siste dekket, det ytre dekket som alle så. De var tøffe og klare og veldig klare i utseendet. Men hvordan snakker dette om Kristus? Den snakker om hva Kristus var for mennesket. Det var ingen ytre skjønnhet ved selve tabernaklet, så det var med Kristus da han kom til jorden da han slo opp sitt tabernakel blant mennesker. Som profeten forutsagt:

Er 53: 1-2 Hvem har trodd vår rapport? Og for hvem er Herrens arm blitt åpenbart? For han skal vokse opp foran ham som en mør plante og som en rot fra tørr jord. Han har ingen form eller komlighet, og når vi ser ham, er det ingen skjønnhet at vi skulle ønske ham.

Hva var Jesus for jødene? ingenting annet enn en kurs, hard grevlinghud. Hva er Jesus for verden i dag? ingenting annet enn en kurs, hard grevlinghud. Men for oss som har åpnet våre hjerter for ham, er han mye mye mer. Han er den "til sammen nydelige", han er "Sharons rose", "Dalens lilje" og "Sannest blant 10.000" for våre sjeler. Hvis noen ønsket å se utover det ytre kjøttdekket, ville de se forandringen av Kristi herlighet. "Kan det komme noe godt ut av Nasaret?" sier Jesus, "Kom og se".

Joh 1: 10-14 Han var i verden, og verden ble til ved ham, og verden kjente ham ikke. Han kom til sitt eget, og hans eget tok ikke imot ham. Men så mange som tok imot ham, ga dem retten til å bli Guds barn, til dem som tror på hans navn: som ble født, ikke av blod eller av kjødets vilje eller av menneskets vilje, men av Gud. Og Ordet ble kjød og bodde blant oss, og vi så hans herlighet, herligheten som den enbårne av Faderen, full av nåde og sannhet.


'Acacia Wood' (Uforgjengelig menneskehet) også kalt Shittim Wood

Shittah -treet vokste i ørkenene i Sinai, og ørkenene rundt Dødehavet. Treet er hardt, veldig tungt, uforgjengelig av insekter, og har et fint, vakkert korn. Det var bemerkelsesverdig frodig på tørre steder, og nådde noen ganger en høyde på tjue fot. Den hadde nydelige gule blomster og insektresistent akasietre ble brukt til å lage mumiekasser. Dette Acacia -treet snakker utvilsomt om Kristi uforgjengelige menneskelighet, for vi blir fortalt at hans menneskelighet aldri ville se korrupsjon.

Sal 16:10 For du vil ikke forlate min sjel i Sheol, og du vil ikke tillate Den Hellige å se fordervelse.

Han var den virkelig menneskelige, "mannen Kristus Jesus". Bibelen kaller ham, & quot; Marias sønn & quot; og & quot; menneskets & quot; Et legeme ble forberedt for ham:

Heb 10: 5 Derfor, da han kom til verden, sa han: & quot Offer og offring ønsket du ikke, men et legeme du har forberedt for meg.

Og den kroppen har han fremdeles i en glorifisert form. "Den samme Jesus" er i himmelen akkurat nå, og en dag vil komme tilbake for oss og ære oss også:

1 Joh 3: 2 Kjære, nå er vi Guds barn, og det er ennå ikke åpenbart hva vi skal være, men vi vet at når han blir åpenbart, skal vi være som ham, for vi skal se ham som han er.

Rom 8: 18-21 For jeg mener at lidelsen i denne tid ikke er verdig å sammenligne med herligheten som skal åpenbares i oss. For den seriøse forventningen til skapelsen venter ivrig på avsløring av Guds sønner. For skapelsen ble utsatt for meningsløshet, ikke villig, men på grunn av ham som utsatte den i håp fordi skapelsen selv også vil bli befriet fra korrupsjonens trelldom til Guds barns strålende frihet.


'Oil' (The Spirits salving)

Oljen ble oppnådd ved å knuse landets olivenbær. Olje, som vi vet, var væsken som ble brukt da profeten, presten og kongen ble salvet i gamle testamentetider. Og på grunn av passasjer som:

1 Joh 2: 20-21 20 Men du har en salvelse fra Den Hellige, og du vet alt.

1 Sam 16:13 Så tok Samuel oljehornet og salvet ham blant sine brødre, og Herrens ånd kom over David fra den dagen av. Så reiste Samuel seg og dro til Rama.

Is 32:15 Til Ånden er utøst over oss fra det høye, og ørkenen blir en fruktbar åker, og den fruktbare åkeren regnes som en skog.

Vi har bibelsk autoritet for å se oljen som en type av Den Hellige Ånd. I Bibelen er oliventreet symbolsk for mange ting:

Hos 14: 6 Hans grener skal spre hans skjønnhet være som et oliventre og hans duft som Libanon.

Ps 52: 8 Men jeg er som et grønt oliventre i Guds hus, jeg stoler på Guds barmhjertighet for alltid og alltid.

Dom 9: 9 Men oliventreet sa til dem: Skulle jeg forlate min fedme, som de hedrer med meg? Gud og mennesker, og vil bli forfremmet over trærne?

Den Hellige Ånd, som olivenolje, er den som har alt mennesket trenger for liv og gudsfrykt. Rikdom, fruktbarhet og skjønnhet er alle hans i en overflod. Jesus ble salvet av Gud som profet, prest og konge. Alt Kristus gjorde var fylt med rikdom, fruktbarhet og skjønnhet fordi han var Den hellige ånds tempel og fylt med all fylde:

Joh 3:34 & quot For den som Gud har sendt, taler Guds ord, for Gud gir ikke Ånden etter mål.

Det er interessant at olivenene ikke ble slått eller presset, men knust. Så Jesus ble knust i Getsemane hage (Heb. Oil Press) og deretter av selve Guds vrede på et romersk kors, slik Bibelen sier:

Is 53:10 Likevel likte det Herren å knuse ham, han har bedratt ham. Når du gjør hans sjel til syndoffer, skal han se hans avkom, han vil forlenge sine dager, og Herrens behag skal lykkes i hånden.

Salveoljen var bare begrenset til tabernakelbruk, alle som bryter kommandoen ble drept. Olivenoljen skulle være ren og bare ren, fordi den representerer Kristi HELLIGE Ånd. Ordet "Kristus" er det greske ordet for hebraisk "Messias" som betyr "den salvede". Det betyr bokstavelig talt & quotto smear & quot som med olje. Oljen ble også brukt til å salve Det hellige tabernaklet og dets møbler, og til å tenne den gylne lysestaken.


'Krydder til olje og røkelse' (Søt duftende til Gud)

Det var tre krydder som skulle tilsettes til røkelsen og oljen:

Eks 30:34 Og Herren sa til Moses: & quot: Ta søte krydder, stacte og onycha og galbanum, og ren røkelse med disse søte krydderne, det skal være like store mengder av hver.

Et pulver fra de herdede dråpene til den duftende harpiksen som finnes i barken av myrrabusken. Ordet betyr & kvotefall & quot.

Et pulver fra det kåte skalldekselet til et muslingeliknende bløtdyr funnet i Rødehavet. Når det brennes, avgir dette pulveret en gjennomtrengende aroma. Det hebraiske ordet betyr- & quotaromatic shell & quot. Rødehavet er en isolert lomme med varmt vann i Det indiske hav og er kjent for sine særegne underarter av bløtdyr.

En brunaktig skarp harpiks som utstråler fra den nedre delen av stammen på en Ferula -plante. Denne urteplanten finnes ved Middelhavet og har tykke stilker, gule blomster og bregnerlignende grønt løvverk. Den har en muskuløs, skarp lukt og er verdifull fordi den bevarer duften av en blandet parfyme og tillater distribusjon over en lengre periode.

I disse krydderne eller parfymene ser vi Jesus som den søtlige duften som gir glede til Faderens hjerte. Når vi blandes med olivenoljen, ser vi det søte, lysende arbeidet til Kristi ånd, og når vi blandes med røkelse, ser vi bønnens sødme som en luktende duft i Guds nesebor & quot. Hvor passende at disse parfymene ville peke på Kristus.

Joh 8:29 & quot Og han som sendte meg, er med meg. Faderen har ikke forlatt meg alene, for jeg gjør alltid de tingene som behager ham. & Quot

Ef 5: 2 og vandre i kjærlighet, slik Kristus også har elsket oss og gitt seg selv for oss, et offer og et offer til Gud for en luktende duft.

2 Cor 2: 15-16 15 For vi er for Gud en duft av Kristus blant dem som blir frelst og blant dem som går under. 16 For den ene er vi duften av død som fører til døden, og for den andre duften av liv som fører til liv. Og hvem er tilstrekkelig for disse tingene?

"Og la dem gjøre meg til et fristed, så jeg kan bo blant dem" & quot - 2.Mosebok 25: 8

Lovens formål og hjerte - En hengiven melding

Tabernaklet i det gamle Israel var et fristed som ble gitt i en visjon til Moses som et mønster og konstruert av Israels barn. Guds løfte var at han skulle bo i det aller helligste over nådestolen i paktens ark.

Hvorfor studere tabernaklet?

A) 50 kapitler nevner tabernaklet

Fordi minst 50 kapitler (13-Ex, 18-Lev, 13-Num, 2-Deut, 4-Heb) i Bibelen forteller om konstruksjonen, ritualet, presteskapet, bæringen av tabernaklet og betydningen av alt. Mange andre steder i Bibelen snakker i figurativt språk om tabernaklet. I mange bibelstudier blir dette emnet oversett og ansett som ubetydelig.

B) Sløret av sløret

Gud selv tenkte så mye på viktigheten av typen, som vist ved å rive sløret:

Matt 27: 50-51 Og Jesus ropte igjen med høy røst og ga opp sin ånd. Så, se, templets slør ble revet i to fra topp til bunn og jorden skjelv, og steinene ble splittet,

Hvis vi ikke forstår betydningen i Bibelen med det aller helligste og sløret, går vi glipp av ekstremt viktig informasjon om nøyaktig hva Kristi død betydde for den syndige menneskeheten.

C) Tabernaklet er en type Kristus:

Husk hva Ordet sier, & quotall Skriften er gitt av inspirasjon (Gudpustet) fra Gud. & quot Når vi ser på Bibelen, må vi huske at den er helt pustet av Gud. Når vi ser på hvert ord, må vi huske at hvert ord er spesielt pustet av Gud. Det var Kristi syn når det gjaldt Bibelen, det var apostlenes syn, og det må være vårt syn. Dette er selve Guds Ord. Det inneholder ikke bare Guds Ord, eller bare peker på religiøs erfaring, dette er Guds Ord.

Er det da rart at hver eneste detalj og ord om tabernaklet har åndelig betydning? Når vi ser på selve tabernakelstrukturen og dens unike stykker av forløsende møbler, finnes det stor symbolikk og typologi i dem. Husk at alt var en finger som pekte på Messias. Tabernaklet, som en type, designet spesielt og i detalj av Gud, ville peke på karakteren og aspektene ved Kristi tjeneste. Jo mer vi blir kjent med tabernaklet, jo mer blir vi kjent med Kristus og alt det han betyr for oss. For en god grunn til å bli kjent med Bibelen om tabernaklet.

Heb 10:20 by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh,

Col 2:17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

Jn 1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

D) It is a Representation of the True Tabernacle in Heaven:

The Lord wants us to be aware of His nature and character. Even the angels don't fully understand the nature and character of God but they learn from watching His dealings with His church (Eph 3). Things are really happening in the heavenly dimension and the Lord wants to reveal to us what took place in heaven after the resurrection of Christ. There is a real tabernacle in the heavenlies and Christ really appeared before the throne of heaven as the Lamb of God (Rev 5). There is no doubt that some of these things are a mystery but the more we draw close to God and His Word the more He draws close to us.

Heb 9:11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.

E) The Presence Within the Holy of Holies Dwells Within the Believer in Jesus:

Jesus said I am the temple (Mishkan) of God. When the glory (Heb. Sh'chinah) would come down like a tornado or funnel right through the roof of the holy of holies and the Presence would manifest on the mercy seat between the cherubim after the blood was sprinkled, that was the mishkan. That Presence was what Jesus said dwelt within Him. And in fact Paul said about the church, "Know ye not that you are the temple (Mishkan) of God?" We, as the body of Christ, have the same Presence dwelling within us. God doesn't dwell in buildings now but within His people.

1 Cor 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

F) Its teaching covers in type almost all of New Testament truth.

The study of the tabernacle is so rich in meaning to the Christian and so pregnant with Messianic significance that we can spend a lifetime in the study of it and only begin to understand the riches and the depth of truth that lies within the study of the tabernacle.

Rom 15:4 "Whatever things that were written before were written for our learning."

G) Studying the Tabernacle will absolutely strengthen our faith in the Bible.

Be assured that anyone who has delved into the wonderful details of the tabernacle will confess that the Bible is more than just a book. No man could have thought of this. The Bible is the Word of God.

"all Scripture is given by inspiration of God. & quot


Nanna/Suen/Sin (god)

Mesopotamian moon god. He was called Nanna in Sumerian, and Su'en or Sin in Akkadian. The earliest writings of both are roughly contemporary, and occur interchangeably. An additional name, which is only attested in literary texts, is Dilimbabbar. The true etymologies of both Nanna and Su'en remain unclear (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-64).

Functions

Possible depiction of the god Nanna, seated on a temple-like throne, on a fragment of the Stele of Ur-Namma at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (object number B16676.14) (ca. 2100 BCE). The stele was excavated at Ur. © Penn Museum.

The ziggurat  TT  , or temple tower, of Nanna at Ur. It was built by king Ur-Namma of Ur (r. about 2112-2095 BCE), the founder of the Ur III dynasty. The monumental temple tower is built of solid bricks. © Penn Museum.

The moon god was the tutelary deity of the city of Ur. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. In the Early Dynastic god lists, such as Fara SF 1, the moon god appears immediately after the four leading gods An, Enlil, Inana and Enki (Klein 2001: 290, and this important, albeit slightly junior position, is confirmed in the text Nanna-Suen's Journey to Nippur (ETCSL 1.5.1: 18), when Nanna brings the "first fruit offerings" to Enlil, the head of the early Mesopotamian pantheon (Black et al. 2004: 147).

The primary symbol of the moon god was as a bull, the result of the horizontal crescent of the waxing moon appearing similar to the horns of that animal. This symbolism led to a consideration of the moon god as a cowherd, which is celebrated most clearly in the composition The Herds of Nanna (ETCSL 4.13.06), the longest section of which enumerates the cattle in Nanna's herd.

An association with fertility may come from the moon god's connection to cattle, and also, perhaps, from the clear link to the menstrual cycle, roughly similar to the timing of the moon's transformations. The connection with fertility is demonstrated in the Old Babylonian (early second-millennium) birth incantations (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367 Veldhuis 1991). The magical-medical text A Cow of Sin relates the story of the moon god's beautiful and pregnant cow, Geme-Sin. The birthing-pains of Geme-Sin are eased by Sin, and the incantation ends with a 'supplication: "may this woman give birth as easily as Geme-Sin" suggesting this text's role in human child-birth (Veldhuis 1991: 1).

Other literature makes much of the moon as an astronomical feature. The deity is referred to in terms characteristic of the celestial body, e.g., radiant, shining, and much is made of the moon's path and cycle, which were also keenly observed for omens of the future, for example in the first-millennium series šumma Sin ina tāmartišu, "If the moon at its appearance" (Hunger and Pingree 1999: 21 ff.).

The Akkadian literature evokes some of the other functions of the moon god. A prayer to Su'en details his role in divination (Foster 2005: 758-9). No doubt this divinatory role was also connected to the moon god's ability to illuminate darkness (Foster 2005: 760-1). Both the moon god and the sun god are praised together in a further text in which they are associated with issuing laws and verdicts, the determination of destinies, and the announcements of omens (Foster 2005: 762). This judicial role was already obvious in the text of the Early Dynastic 'Stele of the Vultures', where oaths are taken in the presence of Su'en, and in his epithet "diviner of fates", which is used across the Near East (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367).

Divine Genealogy and Syncretisms

In the Sumerian myth Enlil and Ninlil (ETCSL 1.2.1), the moon god is described as the first-born son of Enlil and Ninlil, and the moon god's three brothers are listed: Nergal-Meslamtaea, Ninazu (both underworld deities) and Enbililu (who was responsible for irrigation). There has been some suggestion that this position as the 'first born son of Enlil' might reflect the importance of Ur during the Ur III period. There are also occasional references to a paternal/fillial relationship between An and the moon god (Klein 2001: 295-7), but such are probably general references to An in his role as father of all the gods (Krebernik 1993-98b: 364-5).

The moon god's wife is the goddess Ningal (Akk. Nikkal) and their children are Inana and Utu (Edzard 1965: 102). The god list AN = Anum also names Ningublaga as the son of the moon god, and Amarra-azu and Amarra-he'ea as his daughters. Another child of the moon god known from Old Babylonian sources is Numušda (Hall 1985: 742). Nanna's vizier was Alammuš. In the first millenium Nuska, a vizier of Enlil, was thought of as a son of Su'en (specifically the Su'en of Harran) - a relationship which is possibly a result of contact/conflation with Aramaic religious beliefs (Krebernik 1993-98b: 365-8).

Cult Places

From the earliest periods, Nanna/Su'en was the patron deity of the city of Ur [

/images/Ur.jpg] . The name of his main sanctuary in Ur was é-kiš-nu-gál, the name also used for the moon god's sanctuaries in Babylon [

/images/Nippur.jpg] (George 1993: 114). From the Akkadian period until the middle of the Old Babylonian period, the daughter of the reigning king was appointed to be the high-priestess of the moon god at Ur (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367-9). The most famous of these is Enheduanna, who is the purported author of several Sumerian literary works (e.g. the Temple Hymns, ETCSL 4.80.1 and Inana B, ETCSL 4.07.2). However, Enheduanna's authorship has been seriously questioned (Civil 1980 Black 2002 Rubio 2009 Lion 2011). Other Mesopotamian cult places for the moon god include Ga'eš, a place in the neighbourhood of Ur [

/images/Urum.jpg] , modern Tell `Uqair located east of Babylon, where the moon god was honoured as Dilimbabbar. Beyond the alluvial plains of Mesopotamia, a cult centre of Nanna/Su'en is attested at Harran [

/images/Harran.jpg] , south-east of modern Urfa [

/images/Urfa.jpg] , from the Old Babylonian period onwards, where the temple name was é-húl-húl "House of Rejoicing" (Krebernik 1993-98b: 368). At Harran a long inscription was found on a stele, which commemorates Adda-guppi, the mother of Nabonidus, and which celebrates her reverence of the moon god. Another stele inscription from Harran describes Nabonidus' accession to the throne, which is here described as being at the will of Su'en, and that he rebuilt the é-húl-húl temple (Gadd 1958).

Time Periods Attested

The earliest attestation of this name dates back to the very beginning of written documentations. In personal names the moon god is attested from the Late Uruk period until the very end of the cuneiform tradition. Not only is he frequently attested in personal names, a testimony to personal piety, he is also frequently invoked in royal names from the earlier to the late periods, for example: Naram-Sin (Old Akkadian) Amar-Su'en, Šu-Sin, Ibbi-Sin (all Ur III) Sin-iddinam (Old Babylonian), Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sin-ahhe-eruba – from the Neo Assyrian period) (Cohen 1996: 9 Krebernik 1993-98b: 360 Hall 1985: 56-91).

Not surprisingly it is from the Third Dynasty of Ur that come the greatest number of attestations and clearest indications of worship. Many dedicatory inscriptions of canals, buildings and objects record the worship and patronage of Su'en, most during Ur-Namma's reign. The perhaps most obvious of these is the temple tower ( ziggurat  TT  ) at Ur, built under Ur-Namma. The year names continue to record events related to the moon god, most commonly the installation of the high-priestesses of the moon god at Ur, and for Nanna-Karzida at Gaeš (Hall 1985: 130-2), while offerings are very commonly attested (Hall 1985). The royal hymns, particularly those to Šulgi often include subscripts to Nanna, for example Šulgi D (ETCSL 2.4.2.04 Klein 2001: 285). Among this literature are the 15 hymns to Nanna, which include A Balbale to Suen (ECTSL 4.13.01) and A tigi to Su'en (ECTSL 4.13.09).

Worship of the moon god continued throughout the Old Babylonian period, as attested in both personal names and royal names as well as numerous building inscriptions, year dates and offerings (Hall 1985 Collon 1992: 20).

The moon god seems to have fallen out of favour somewhat in the period of 1500-1000 BCE (Foster 2005: 758-62), but experienced a revival during the first millennium, in particular in personal names of the Neo-Assyrian period (Radner and Baker 1998-2011). Su'en often appears second, after the pre-eminent deity Aššur, among the gods invoked to bless the king (SAA 1, 133 line 1). Some scholars have argued that the Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus promoted the moon god within the pantheon of Babylonia, but more recently it has been suggested that this is an over-interpretation of the evidence available (Kuhrt_1995: 600). Nevertheless, Nabonidus also reconstructed the temple of Sin at Ur and reinstated the position of the high-priestess priestess of the moon god at Ur.

Iconography

While the moon god is commonly attested in the literature and texts of Mesopotamia, he is not as commonly reflected in the visual iconography. Anthropomorphic representations are known from the Ur III period royal iconography, but second millennium BCE images are rare, which is surprising given that Nanna/Su'en formed the most popular theophoric element in Old Babylonian names. A painting of the moon god is attested at Mari (Room 132), and these relatively rare figurative images continue down to the Neo-Assyrian period, for example Sennacherib's rock relief at Maltai. By far the most common images of this deity appear on cylinder seals, known from across Mesopotamian history (Collon 1992: 22, 27).

The moon god is most frequently represented by his symbol, the crescent moon (Sumerian u4-sakar, Akkadian u/ašqāru). This iconography is already known form Early Dynastic seals, and continues throughout Mesopotamian history and across the Ancient Near East. The crescent shape had an impact on other symbols which came to be associated with Nanna/Suen, primarily the moon god's association with the bull (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360). Additionally, Nanna/Su'en is often attested in connection with a boat. Other iconographic symbols include a rather enigmatic tripod, and it is now thought that many of the motifs once thought to be solely associated with the sun god - such as rays, gates and a god-figure rising between mountains, might now also be considered iconographic characteristics of the moon god. Such similarities should not be surprising given that the moon provided the light of the night-time, as the sun did for the day (Krebernik 1993-98b: 374-7).

Name and Spellings

Nanna: In the Early Dynastic period: d ŠEŠ.NA (with the sign NA acting as a phonetic complement) later d ŠEŠ.KI or d ŠEŠ+KI, syllabically: na-an-na (Cohen 1996: 9 Krebernik 1993-98b: 360).

Su'en/Sin: first attested at Ebla from ca. 2400 BCE spelled d EN.ZU, but read Su'en in Sumerian names, and Sin in Akkadian names. For discussions of this rebus-writing, see Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-2. From the Old Babylonian period onward: (d) 30, clearly related to the close connection between the moon and the month (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-1).

Dilimbabbar (previously read Ašimbabbar): An alternative name or epithet. The logographic writing DIL-im2-babbar suggests two possible, and perhaps not mutually exclusive interpretations. The Sumerian word pronounced 'dilim' (written DILIM2) can refer to a bowl, a possibly valid metaphor for the quarter-moon, and the use of DI, might have been a play upon the meaning of this term as 'unique', while babbar is the Sumerian for "white" (Cohen 1996: 11 n.20).


Category Archives: Ur-Zababa

A long while ago, I wanted to write about Ku-Baba, the only woman on the Sumerian King List. I went first to my go-to source on anything Sumerian, Sumerian Shakespeare, and found that Jerald Starr, the brain behind the site, had not mentioned Ku-Baba at all. It was as if I was just imagining this rather intriguing figure.

Nonetheless, I wrote to Starr with the hope he would have some information about Ku-Baba, or at least a good source he could point me toward. His response, which was basically doubt that she existed at all, left me feeling like I was at a dead end at the time, so I abandoned the idea of writing about her.

Fast forward to today, and Starr has changed his mind. “I had to revise my opinion,” he wrote to me in a surprise email. He also included a link to a new post on his website, in which he explains in detail how he arrived at the conclusion that Ku-Baba might have existed after all.

“For a long time I doubted that Ku-Baba even existed,” he writes in the post. “I believed the reference was a sly mean-spirited joke by the scribe who wrote the King List.”

What changed Starr’s mind was an alabaster statue at the Louvre from Girsu, with a little too much eye makeup to be just your run-of-the-mill Sumerian priestess, as he had initially believed. “When I first saw the statue, I believed it was a Sumerian priestess because she seems to be wearing a circular headband,” he writes, “. . .although for a priestess I thought she was a bit heavy-handed with the makeup.”

From the eyes, Starr traveled back up to the head, where it became clear to him that it was no headband this statue was wearing–that it was a hat he’d never seen on a Sumerian woman before. “The hat on the statue most closely resembles a shepherd hat, the crown of a Sumerian king,” he writes.

And from there, Starr writes as only he can about the minutest details to put Ku-Baba, the first woman ruler in history, back into the realm of possibility, giving me a chance to write about Ku-Baba like I had originally wanted.

The First Woman Ruler

Ku-Baba, Kug-Bau in Sumerian, is the only female monarch on the Sumerian King List. She ruled between 2500 BC and 2330 BC. On the list itself, she is identified as:

… the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish, became king she ruled for 100 years.

Every source I came across in my research, including Starr, questioned how a woman who was a tavern-keeper became king. They then went on to explain that tavern keeping was one of many occupations Mesopotamian women could hold. Now, aside from Starr, said sources all described tavern keeping as a well-respected occupation, even while some mentioned that taverns in Sumer were pretty much brothels. This complicates further the rationale of a woman tavern-keeper becoming king, but in her About.com article titled, “Kubaba, A Queen Among Kings,” Carly Silver writes, “Regardless of what kind of show they were running, women often ran taverns, holding perhaps one of the only independent female positions of power in ancient Sumer.”

Silver drives home the rather high status of the tavern-keeper profession by mentioning Siduri, the female tavern-keeper Gilgamesh meets in the Underworld in his quest for immortality in the epic of his namesake. In it, the tavern-keeper gives Gilgamesh, a powerful god-king, sage advice about the nature of human life, how short it is, and how one ought to enjoy it.

“So, in what was probably a very important epic even in antiquity,” she writes, “a female tavern-keeper was seen as a guide along perilous paths and a figure worthy of veneration.”

Conversely, Starr’s description of the status of a tavern-keeper, or barmaid, is one that is very different from Silver’s. He writes, “Throughout history, a barmaid was typically considered to be a woman of loose morals, freely available to the patrons of the tavern, and little better than a common prostitute.”

So, how can this be? Several sources commend tavern keeping as a respectable occupation, almost making it sound like it was a foot in the door for Ku-Baba to become queen in her own right, while one all but ascribes it to prostitutes.

It helps that Starr does mention a distinction between a mere barmaid who slings drinks and provides patrons with her company, and someone who owns the establishment where this business takes place, a distinction other sources do not mention. Starr also classifies an owner of a tavern as “middle class,” while iterating that the employee slinging the drinks is “a commoner, and a lowly commoner at that.”

Furthermore, in order to see more clearly how tavern keeping relates to Ku-Baba’s rise to royalty, it helps to look at the picture in a different way.

According to Starr, even though there is no question Ku-Baba was a commoner, she might not have been a tavern-keeper. Starr states in his post that it was her parents who were tavern-keepers, a nugget he says her enemies distorted and used against her to tarnish her reputation and legacy. “I believe Ku-Baba was unfairly characterized as a bawd (the usual description of a female barkeeper) for propaganda reasons,” Starr writes. “I believe it was a deliberate attempt to sully her reputation. It is the kind of thing her enemies would say about her.”

Bottom line, we must let go of the idea that Ku-Baba was a tavern-keeper to get to the bottom of how she became a queen in her own right, because everything is questionable when you have an enemy, which she did, according to Starr.

And who was that enemy, you ask? Sargon of Akkad, our favorite baby in a basket here at AllMesopotamia.

Again, I point you toward Starr’s article for a more comprehensive telling of this story and presentation of the case involving Ku-Baba’s previous profession, but Sargon of Akkad usurped the throne of Kish from Ur-Zababa, Ku-Baba’s grandson, 31 years after her death, serving as background for Starr’s conclusion.

But how did Ku-Baba take the throne?

In her article titled “Ku-Bau, the First Woman Ruler,” Darci Clark writes, “In general, other women in Mesopotamian society would only be able to exert any political influence through their relationships to the king.”

Starr echoes Clark’s statement: “Sumerian queens were always the wives of kings. They never governed on their own.”

Okay, but would a king marry a commoner?

“Although it is highly unlikely that a king would marry a commoner,” Starr explains, “it is certainly within the realm of possibility.”

It’s possible Ku-Baba married a king, but there is no mention of such a thing happening in ancient texts. Nevertheless, a king was involved. According to Clark, Ku-Baba became lugal of Kish after performing an act of kindness. It seems that a king–Puzur-Nirah, king of Akshak, namely–awarded Ku-Baba her kingship for a “pious deed.”

Researching this further, I came across an article on the website History Hustle, titled “Kubaba, the Bartender Who Became the First Woman Ruler in History,” which pointed me toward the Weidner Chronicle, an interesting ancient Babylonian religious text, where the deed and its reward are described:

In the reign of Puzur-Nirah, king of Akšak . . . Kubaba gave bread to the fisherman and gave water, she made him offer the fish to Esagila. Marduk the king, the prince of Apsu, favored her and said: “Let it be so!” He entrusted to Kubaba the tavernkeeper, sovereignty over the whole world. (Lines 43-45, Weidner Chronicle)

A Feminine Legacy

Very little is known about Ku-Baba’s reign. We do know that she made Kish strong, and that she reigned for 100 years. It is easy to conclude then that she was a successful monarch. Really, there’s no way she could have not been.

Starr writes, “Any female pretender to the throne who didn’t do an excellent job would quickly find herself in the middle of a coup d’état. She was capable enough, and respected enough, to stay in power and establish a dynasty.”

That dynasty, the 4th Dynasty of Kish, lasted for two generations, ending with the above-mentioned Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Suen, son of Ku-Baba. Not bad for a woman living in a man’s world, and a man’s world it was.

Carly Silver writes that Ku-Baba’s was remembered by later generations as an improper usurper. They would also refer to Ku-Baba when describing things that are not as they should be–women taking on men’s roles has never been popular. “By taking on the duties of a man – a king – Kubaba was seen to have crossed a boundary and transcended gender divisions in an improper fashion,” Silver writes.

Ku-Baba was also referenced when a lung didn’t look so good, or a child was born with both male and female genitalia. “Combining male and female genitalia in an individual would echo her reign as lugal, or king, which the ancients saw as violating the natural order of things,” Silver writes.

Nonetheless, Ku-Baba lived in people’s memories until Babylonian times, becoming a goddess. “But she was still a barmaid,” Starr explains. “She is portrayed as a kindly woman in all of the stories about her . . . Ku-Baba never lost the ‘common touch’. Queen Ku-Baba was always ‘the people’s queen’.”

Whether her legacy when she was an actual memory was a positive or negative one, today, in 2017, Ku-Baba’s legacy is that of (written) history’s first woman ruler, one who could only be slandered by a past that might have been falsified by her enemy, and one whose ascendancy to the throne was built upon kindness.


One Lyre for humanity

When the Baghdad Museum was looted and vandalized in April 2003, most of us could only stand by and watch in horror as part of the world’s history and humanity was lost. And after the initial shock wore off, and for some it never did, some great people got to work right away to restore what was lost.

I’m unfortunately not one of those people, but I’m going to tell you about two such men, one, a pioneer of Mesopotamian archaeology, and the other a musician with passion, both of who do in the most legitimate way possible qualify as members of that elite of humanity.

Before I do that, I will tell you about this, the Golden Lyre of Ur:

The Golden Lyre of Ur on display at the Baghdad Museum before the looting.

This Golden Lyre of Ur was one of thousands of items that fell victim to the looters that awful day in 2003. It is believed to be as much as 4,750 years old. If I may take a moment to put into perspective just how old 4,750 years old is: the Golden Lyre of Ur predates Christianity, Judaism and the construction of the Great Pyramid in Egypt…

Originally excavated with more than a dozen other stringed instruments in 1929 by British archaeologist, Sir Leonard Woolley from the Royal Graves of Ur, the Golden Lyre of Ur was found in the grave of Queen Pu’abi. Queen Pu’abi is believed to have died in 2600 BC.

Queen Pu’abi’s crowned and jewel-adorned body was found along with 74 other bodies, 68 of who were female. The males and females found were all wearing the same type of clothing and each holding a vessel believed to have contained the poison they all drank for their mass suicide. This was part of their duty to their queen as sacrificial victims.

One of those unfortunate females was the Golden Lyre player, whose hand bones were found placed over where the strings would have been.

Sir Leonard Woolley holding a Lyre like the one found in Queen Pu'abi's grave.

The wooden sections of the Golden Lyre had decayed over the centuries, so Woolley used careful methods to avoid damaging the ancient find any further, which aside from wood, was also made of gold, lapis lazuli, gulf shell, pink limestone and bitumen. Before removing the fragile ancient find from the ground, Woolley poured plaster of Paris to fill in the deteriorated parts of the wood and then covered the whole thing with strips of waxed cloth to hold it all together.

If it weren’t for Woolley’s care in excavating such a fragile and ancient piece of humanity’s history, I definitely would not be sitting here writing about the details of the Golden Lyre of Ur, and the wonderful project I’m about to tell you about might not have ever been completed, or even thought of.

Up until Andy Lowings, a harp enthusiast from England, felt a calling to recreate the Golden Lyre of Ur using all the materials used all those thousands of years ago, the instrument was unplayable. And now, after the looting of the Baghdad Museum in April 2003, the Golden Lyre of Ur is not even displayable, as it lies in broken pieces.

The Golden Lyre of Ur after the looting of the Baghdad Museum in 2003. Lowings said at a conference at the Library of Congress in March 2009: "It was vandalized and found broken in the car park."

Enter Lowings and an amazing network of people who care about the history of humanity formed a partnership of sorts that kept growing in size and contributions from universities across the globe, South African gold mines, the Royal goldsmith of Prince Charles, and even the British Royal Air Force, among other unlikely contributors– and a playable and as-close-to-authentic-as-possible Golden Lyre of Ur is now in existence.

You can read the details of how the Sumerian scenes were etched onto the Lyre with lasers and laser engineers at the University of Liverpool in this document.

The project began in 2003, shortly after the original Lyre was destroyed, and Lowings wanted every detail to be recreated, from the golden bullhead, to the Iraqi cedar wood used in the body of the Lyre. The project took three years to complete, and a labor of love–a love of music, of history, of humanity.

You can watch and hear Andy Lowings describe the three years of The Golden Lyre of Ur Project in his warm and compelling way of speaking in this video, recorded at a seminar at the Library of Congress in Washington DC, in March of 2009.

Listen to this piece of music from the strings of Lowings’s reconstructed Golden Lyre of Ur and you might want to ask Lowings to bring this instrument (valued at $50,000) to your next educational event:

Today, Lowings’s project has brought with it a CD of the Lyre’s music and a group that will go wherever they are needed to perform and educate the world about the cradle of civilization, and one of the many tools it gave us to explore our humanity.


10 Medieval Torture Devices

­The period known as the Middle Ages stands out as one­ of ­the most violent eras in history. This epoch, lasting roughly 1,0­00­ years, from the 5th century to the 15th­, was a time of great inequality and brutality in much of Europe.

What really sets this time apart is the ghoulish inventiveness that gave rise to a plethora of torture methods. There were many grounds for torture during the Middle Ages -- religious fervor and criminal punishment come to mind -- but why would a person take the time to invent a device designed to maim?

In his 1975 b­ook "A History of Torture in England," L.A. Parry attempted to explain this bizarre phenomenon:

­". What strikes us most in considering the mediaeval tortures, is not so much their diabolical barbarity … as the extraordinary variety, and what may be termed the artistic skill, they displayed. They represent a condition of thought in which men had pondered long and carefully on all the forms of suffering, had compared and combined the different kinds of torture, till they had become the most consummate masters of their art, had expended on the subject all the resources of the utmost ingenuity, and had pursued it with the ardour of a passion."

In this article, we will explore a collection of the most heinous torture devices ever invented. We begin on the next page.

­The Brazen Bull was a hollow brass statue crafted to resemble a real bull. Victims we­re placed inside, usually with their tongues cut out first. The door was shut, sealing them in. Fires would then be lit around the bull. As the victim succumbed to the searing heat inside, he would thrash about and scream in agony. The movements and sounds, muted by the bull's mass, made the apparatus appear alive, the sounds inside like those of a real bull. This effect created additional amusement for the audience, and served the added benefit of distancing them from the brutality of the torture, since they couldn't directly see the victim.

Legend has it that this device was invented by a Greek named Perillus (Perilaus in some sources) for a tyrant named Phalaris of Agrigentum. Expecting a handsome reward for his creativity, Perillus instead became the first person placed inside the Brazen Bull. By some reports, Phalaris himself became an eventual victim of the bull when his subjects grew tired of his mistreatment [source: Gallonio].

Some courts used torture to determine if someone accused of a crime was truly guilty. This torture would take strange forms: Someone's arm would be forced into boiling water, and the verdict would be based on how well the arm healed days later. Other courts simply tortured people to get them to confess to the crime. The courts themselves even recognized, in their twisted way, that a confession given under torture held no legal meaning. Such a confession had to be confirmed by the victims while not being tortured within 24 hours. If they refused, however, they were simply tortured until they confessed again [source: Innes].

­Thumbscrews represent a very insid­ious form of torture. You weren't likely to die from their use, but they created unendurable agony. The device consisted of three upright metal bars, between which the thumbs were placed. A wooden bar slid down along the metal bars, pressing the thumbs against the bottom. A screw pressed the wood bar downward, crushing the thumbs painfully. The thumbscrews were an elaboration of an earlier device known as the pilliwinks, which could crush all 10 fingers and resembled a nutcracker [source: Parry].

Thumbscrews supposedly originated with the Russian army as a punishment for misbehaving soldiers. A Scottish man brought a set home with him and introduced them to the United Kingdom [Kellaway and Parry].

Up next, a very old and very familiar medieval torture device, plus some variations on a theme.

Torture was often included as part of a judicial sentence against a criminal. Authorities responded to increases in crime rates by enacting excruciating tortures upon convicted criminals, usually in a very public manner. The horrifying nature of the punishment was meant to deter other criminals. While the most serious offenses (high treason, mass murder) resulted in severe torture, children were sometimes hanged for stealing food, so not everyone who visited the torturer's chamber was a hardened criminal.

The rack was used throughout Eu­rope for centuries. It came in many forms, but here's the basic idea: The victim is tied down while some mechanical device, usually a crank or turning wheel, tightens the ropes, stretching the victim's body until the joints are dislocated. Continued pressure could cause the limbs to be torn right off. Such torture was known as being "broken on the rack," "racked," or "stretched on the rack." It could be combined with other forms of torture to make things even more painful. In one story, a Christian youth was tied to a wheel and his joints destroyed by the stretching. A fire was lit beneath the wheel, adding to the torture. Eventually, the fire was extinguished by the downpour of blood as the victim's limbs were torn free [source: Gallonio].

One type of rack was known as the Horse. It was a wooden device that vaguely resembled an actual horse in shape. The victim was tied to a beam on the top (the horse's "back"), facing up. Pulleys below tightened ropes affixed to the victim's hands and feet. He or she was stretched until his or her joints dislocated, then left there or slackened and allowed to hang underneath the horse while an inquisitor or judge questioned the victim and tried to get a confession [source: Gallonio]. Torquemada, the infamous torturer of the Spanish Inquisition, was known to favor a stretching rack known as a potoro [source: Goldberg & Itzkowitz].

Wheels were adapted to many torturous u­ses. They could be part of a stretching rack, but medieval torturers were far too creative to leave it at that. Early torturers were fond of tying someone to a large wooden wheel, then pushing it down a rocky hillside. A more elaborate method involved a wheel mounted to an A-frame that allowed it to swing freely. The victim would be tied to the wheel, and then swung across some undesirable thing below -- fire was always a good choice, but dragging the victim's flesh across metal spikes also worked well. The wheel itself could also have spikes mounted on it, so the pain came from all directions. Instead of swinging, the wheel might turn on an axle. The difference was likely immaterial to the victims.

One of the most horrible wheel tortures was akin to crucifixion. The victim would have the bones in all four limbs broken in two places by strikes from an iron bar. Then, the shattered limbs were threaded through the spokes of a large wheel. Finally, the wheel would be attached to the top of a tall wooden pole and left out in the sun for days. The victim might be alive for hours, enduring the agony of his or her mangled arms and legs and the relentless sun, not to mention the attentions of crows [source: Hunt].

Next, we'll learn about two torture methods that were still used even after the Middle Ages had ended.

Bein­g burned at the stake was usually the last stop for torture victims, because this form of torture was invariably fatal. Conceptually, it's a very simple process -- create a pile of dry wood with a stake at the center to tie the victim to, and then light it. The fire does all the work. It usually took about a half an hour before the victim lost consciousness, but if it was windy and the fire was blowing away from the victim, he or she might have to endure up to two hours of being slowly burned to death [source: Bachrach]. Since the victims had usually been previously tortured with the rack or some other method, the pain must have been unimaginable. Despite the horror of simply being burned at the stake, the torturers of the Inquisition in the Netherlands developed a particularly cruel twist: Prior to being tied to the stake, the victim's tongue would be sandwiched between two hot iron plates. The scorched and swollen tongue would only allow strange, muffled screams of pain once the burning began, which supposedly added a great deal to the audience's entertainment.

The cruel irony of the Inquisition's practice of burning people at the stake was that it happened whether you confessed or not. Once accused of heresy, you would almost certainly be consumed by fire. However, if you confessed, you would be strangled to death before the fire was lit, supposedly sparing you the agony. This practice didn't die out at the end of the Middle Ages, however. Both women and men accused of witchcraft were burned at the stake in England, France and other locales well into the 17th century.

The pillory remained in use even later than the stake. A pillory is a­ set of two parallel wooden boards clasped together, with holes for the neck and wrists. When opened, the victim places his or her head and arms through the holes. Then the pillory is closed, and the victim can't possibly escape.

The pillory itself does no harm to the victim, though it's certainly not comfortable. The entire apparatus was usually placed on a stage in a public place -- the entire point was to humiliate and shame the victim for his or her crimes. The crowd would throw objects at the victim, such as rotten vegetables, dead animals or feces. Stones and other blunt objects were thrown as well, which could result in painful injuries or death.

While a spell in the pillory often only lasted an hour or two, usually during the busiest times of day, its effect really depended on the nature of the crime and the mood of the crowd. Four English men who had falsely accused others of crimes to get the reward (sending innocents to the hangman's noose) were beaten to death by the crowd. Others who won the crowd's favor by refusing to pay unjust taxes or mocking government officials were showered with flowers or rescued from the pillory outright [source: Kellaway]. For lesser crimes, the victim might instead be placed in stocks, leg irons that restrained the ankles. While the goal of public humiliation was the same, the stocks allowed victims to protect themselves from thrown objects.

Sometimes, the vengeful crowd was the least of the victim's concerns. The pillory could be accompanied by other punishments, such as flogging or mutilation. British authorities favored branding the face with a mark of shame, such cutting off one or both ears, or slicing the nose lengthwise [sources: Farrington and Parry].

The next section features one of the most infamous torture devices of all time, plus its lesser known cousin.


Se videoen: The Sumerian Silver Lyre